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JULY, 1921 


The Raritan Valley of New Jersey 

By John P. Wall and H. E. Pickeesgill 

New Brunswick Pebth Amboy 

pi|j]jHE Dutch East India Company of the United Nether- 
>yjS%\ lands, who employed Hudson on his voyage of discovery, 
f&4lj combined military with commercial operations, and was 
itSlsU divided into five chambers established in five of the 
principal Dutch cities. Its attention was devoted more especially 
to making reprisals on Spanish commerce, purchasing slaves, the 
conquest of Brazil, etc. New Netherland was committed to the 
charge of the Amsterdam chamber. 

Five years after Hudson's voyage, a company of merchants under 
the title of the United Company of New Netherland, procured from 
the States-General of Holland a patent for the exclusive trade on 
the Hudson river. They established a trading post at New Amster- 
dam, on the present site of the Battery. A small redoubt on the site 
of what is now a part of the city of Kingston, New York, was also 
built; it was known as the Ronduit, from whence comes the name 
of Rondout. In the upper valley of the Hudson a fort was erected 
upon Castle Island, near and below the present city of Albany. 
One of their navigators, Adriaen Block, extended the sphere of dis- 
covery by the way of the East river, tracing the shores of Long 
Island and Connecticut as far as Cape Cod. He sailed up the Con- 
necticut, named by him the Fresh river, and built a trading post to 
which he gave the name of "The House of Good Hope," on the pres- 
ent site of the city of Hartford. It was more than probable as early 
as 1618 that another trading post was erected in the territory now 
comprising the State of New Jersey, which the Dutch called Achter 
Kull (or Kill) ; the spelling of the second name of this title by some 
historians is Coll. 

The Dutch also claimed as a part of New Netherland by right of 



discovery, the territory adjacent to the Delaware river, which they 
named the South river. This claim was based on Hudson having 
sailed a short distance up the waters of that river prior to his enter- 
ing New York Bay. As early as 1623 a ship under the command 
of Cornelius Jacobse May was dispatched to take possession of this 
territory and effect a settlement. May entered the Delaware Bay 
and gave his name to the northern cape — Cape May. After explor- 
ing the river he landed and erected a fort which he named Fort 
Nassau, situated on the banks of a small stream called by the 
Indians Sassacknow, below the present city of Camden, New Jersey. 

The States-General, on the expiration of the grant of the United 
Company of New Netherland, refused to renew it, but they contin- 
ued to trade in the territory until 1623, when the Dutch West India 
Company, a powerful mercantile association, chartered in 1621, took 
possession of the lands temporarily granted to their predecessors. 
The following year Peter Minuit was appointed director of New 
Netherland; he built Fort Amsterdam, and brought over new col- 
onists who settled on Long Island. Staten Island and Manhattan 
were purchased from the Indians, but the settlements for the next 
five years were merely trading posts. 

It was in 1629 or 1630 that the council of the Dutch West India 
Company adopted plans for a more extensive colonization of New 
Netherland. They granted to certain individuals extensive seig- 
niories or tracts of land, with feudal rights over the lives and per- 
sons of their subjects. These tracts of land that were granted, 
provided that a settlement should be effected within a specified 
time, besides other conditions. Under these provinces Kiliaen Van 
Rensselaer, a pearl merchant of Amsterdam, secured in 1630 and 
subsequently, a tract of land twenty -four by forty-eight miles in 
extent, comprising the present counties of Albanj 7 , Rensselaer and 
part of Columbia. Other wealthy patroons obtained larger grants 
for similar seigniories in other portions of New Netherland. 

The first Indian deed to territory along the west side of New York 
Bay and the Hudson river is dated July 12, 1630. It was for a pur- 
chase made by the Director-General and Council of New Nether- 
land for Michael Pauw, Burgomaster of Amsterdam and Lord of 
Achtrenhoven, near Utrecht, Holland. The burgomaster also in 
the same year obtained a deed for Staten Island. The pur- 
chase on the Jersey shore of the Hudson was named Pavonia. The 



colony established by Pauw was not a success, and his interests were 
purchased by the directors of the West Indian Company, and it be- 
came known as the West India Company's Farms. 

David Pieterson de Vries, who had made two unsuccessful at- 
tempts to establish Dutch settlements on the shores of the Delaware 
in 1640, turned his attention to New Netherland. He purchased 
in that year of the Indians a tract of about five hundred acres at 
Tappan, on the Achter Kull shore of the Hudson, and gave it the 
name of Vriescndall. Located along the riverside, sheltered by high 
hills, with a stream to supply mill sites winding its course through 
its center, it had all the charms of nature, and with the erection of 
buildings became an ideal home, where the energetic owner lived for 
several years. Settlements were also made at Communapaw, Hobo- 
ken, Ahasamus, Paulus Hoeck, and throughout the territory were 
individual settlements, many of which were, however, destroyed in 
the Indian War of 1644. 

The policy of the Dutch government was to encourage the settle- 
ment of colonies or manors similar to lordships and seigniories of 
the Old World, by men of large fortunes, known as patroons, to 
whom peculiar privileges of trade and government were accorded. 
These tracts were sixteen miles in extent along the seashore or 
banks of some navigable river, or eight miles when both banks were 
occupied with an indefinite extent inland, the company, however, 
reserving the island of Manhattan and the fur trade with the 
Indians. These patroons were within four years from the granting 
of the tract to settle them with fifty persons upwards of fifteen years 
of age, and upon all trade carried on by them were to pay five 
per cent, to the company. They were also to extinguish the Indian 
titles to the land ; their tenants were not to acquire a free tenure to 
the lands, and were prohibited from making any woolen, linen or 
cotton cloth or to weave any other material, under a penalty of ban- 
ishment. This restriction was to keep them dependent on the mother 
country for the most necessary manufactures, which was in spirit 
with the colonial system adopted by all the nations of Europe. This 
6eheme of colonization met with favor, and several members of the 
Dutch West India Company selected and purchased the most desir- 
able tracts both on the North and South rivers, as well as the whole 
neck opposite New Amsterdam as far as the Kills and Newark Bay, 
together with Staten Island. 



Directly west of these tracts stretched for miles along the waters 
of Achter Kull and to the estuary west of Staten Island, one of the 
most inviting regions in New Netherland. To these lands, in 1651, 
Cornelius Van Werckhoven, one of the schepens of Utrecht in Hol- 
land, directed his attention. He duly notified the Amsterdam cham- 
ber of his intention to plant colonies or manors in New Netherland 
A commission was thereupon given to Augustine Heermans, who 
resided in New Amsterdam, to open negotiations with the Indians to 
purchase these lands. After negotiations with the resident propri- 
etors, Heermans purchased for Van Werckhoven the tract extend- 
ing from the mouth of the Raritan creek westerly to a creek known 
by the name of Mankackkewacky, running in a northwest direction, 
and then from the Raritan creek northerly along the river into the 
creek, namely, from Raritan Point, called Ompage, now the city of 
Perth Amboy, and following the line of a creek named Pechelesse 
to its head, where it met the Mankackkewacky before named. The 
land thus described included the region west of Staten Island from 
the Raritan to the Passaic rivers, and extended back into the coun- 
try indefinitely. Three other tracts, one to the south of the Raritan 
and two on Long Island, were acquired by this enterprising Dutch- 
man. This wholesale grab of territory aroused objections on the 
part of other greedy speculators, who contended it was too much 
territory in the hands of one owner, and on its being referred to the 
Amsterdam chamber it was decided that Van Werckhoven could 
retain but one of the tracts in question, and he chose to locate him- 
self on Long Island, and the title to the land described above revert- 
ed therefore to the original owners. 

Thus was the colonization of New Jersey again deferred ; the rav- 
ages of the Indians also was a check to making any permanent set- 
tlement. Treaties, however, were consummated with them and the 
territory repurchased by Governor Stuyvesant, with the intention 
of erecting a fortified town. There had, however, been no village 
located prior to 1660, but in the month of August of that year the 
right to establish a village in Achter Kull was granted to several 
inhabitants. It was named Bergen, from a small village in Holland. 
The village, located on a hill, now known as Jersey City Heights, 
grew rapidly, and in May, 1761, there was not a vacant lot inside 
of the fortifications. This was the first permanent settlement on the 
soil of New Jersey. 



At the time of dismemberment of New Netherland by the English, 
in what was known afterwards as West Jersey, in the present coun- 
ties of Gloucester and Burlington, there were a few Swedish farm- 
ers and not to exceed three Dutch families established at Burling- 
ton; it contained not even a hamlet. In East Jersey, whose hills 
had been praised by Verrazzani and the soil trodden by the mariners 
of Hudson, there were in its trackless and forest depths extending 
from the seacoast to the waters of the Raritan and Delaware outside 
of the settlement at Bergen, savages who roamed at will, undisturb- 
ed by the white man. 

The emigrants from Holland were of various lineage, for that 
country had long been the gathering place of the unfortunate. Ref- 
ugees from persecution flocked to her boundaries from England and 
continental Europe. She housed from the heart of Bohemia those 
who were swayed by the voice of Huss, the Separatists from Eng- 
land, the Huguenots from France, the Protestants from the Refor- 
mation, the Walloons from Belgium — all came to her hospitable 
soil, and from there emigrated to the New Eldorado in the Western 
Continent. These early Dutch settlers were generally persons of 
deep religious feeling, honest and conscientious, adding to these 
qualities industry and frugality, and the majority were prosperous. 
Their buildings followed the Holland style of achitecture, being one 
story, with a low ceiling, with nothing more than the heavy and 
thick boards that constituted the upper floor laid on monstrous 
broad and heavy beams ; this portion of their dwelling they utilized 
to store their grain, and for spinning of wool, sometimes being 
divided into sleeping apartments. The fireplaces in these abodes 
were unusually large, sufficient to accommodate the whole family 
with a comfortable seat around the fire. The buildings were built 
large enough to admit of hanging within them meat to smoke. 
The settlers were reluctant to form acquaintance with strangers, 
lest they should be imposed upon, but when a friendship was formed 
it proved lasting. They were clannish in their relations to each 
other; when one of the community was wrongly involved or in 
trouble, especially in litigation, they were as one man. 

The English claim to the territory occupied by the Dutch had 
never been relinquished, and in 1664 Charles II. determined to 
remove from the heart of his American colonies the Dutch suprem- 



acy. The Duke of York had purchased in March, 1664, the claims 
of Lord Stirling under grants which he had received from the extinct 
council of New England, and had received from the King, his broth- 
er, a charter for the valuable tract between the Connecticut and Del- 
aware rivers, which was New Netherlands territorial limits. New 
York was the name bestowed on this province. Energetic measures 
were promptly taken for the seizure of New Netherland, three ships 
being dispatched with six hundred soldiers, having on board Col- 
onel Richard Nicolls, Colonel George Carteret, Sir Robert Carr and 
Samuel Maverick, as commissioners. On Friday, August 19th, the 
fleet cast anchor in the outer bay of New Amsterdam. The sur- 
render of Manhattan was demanded the following day, but Stuy- 
vesant retorted by a spirited protest, doubting if His Majesty of 
Great Britain was well informed, and asking if in time of peace it 
was judicious to demand a capitulation that would offend Holland. 
His argument or threats produced no effect upon the English com- 
mander, who refused to protract negotiations and threatened an 
immediate attack. Mortifying as it was for the doughty old soldier 
to surrender without a struggle, Stuyvesant was compelled to sub- 
mit to circumstances; the majority of the inhabitants were unwill- 
ing to run the risk of an assault to which they could not hope to offer 
any effectual resistance in defense of a government with which they 
were discontented, and against another which many among them 
were secretly disposed to welcome. A liberal capitulation was 
arranged, and upon Monday, August 29th, the Dutch authorities 
surrendered the town and fort to the English, who immediately took 
possession. Colonel Nicolls was proclaimed deputy governor, and 
the people quietly submitted to the sway of the conquerors. 

The Duke of York conveyed the country between the Hudson and 
Delaware rivers to John Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. 
As the extensive tract was thinly inhabited, the proprietaries offered 
favorable propositions to settlers. Absolute freedom of worship, 
and a Colonial Assembly, having sole power of taxation and a share 
of the legislation of the province, were among the principal induce- 
ments. The new grant was named Nova Caesarea, or New Jersey, 
from the island home of Sir George Carteret ; the first name, how- 
ever, was finally dropped, as it was not popular with the settlers. 

Berkeley and Carteret having received information of the terri- 
tory west of the Hudson river, became eager to secure an invest- 



merit in western lands. The Duke of York having by his patent the 
right of sale as well as that of possession and rule, on June 24, 1664, 
conveyed to them for a competent sum of money the territory now 
known as New Jersey, which was then considered the most valuable 
of the Duke's territory. The concessions and agreements of the 
Lord Proprietors of New Jersey having been completed and signed 
Feb. 10, 1665, Captain Philip Carteret, a distant relative of Sir 
George, was commissioned governor of the new province. Robert 
Vauquelin (Sieur des Prairie) of the city of Caen in France, was 
appointed surveyor-general. 

The people of New England had viewed with longing eyes the 
lands located about the Achter Kull and on the Earitan. They had 
crossed the Sound from the colony of New Haven, invading Long 
Island, where they could scarcely gain a subsistence on its poor and 
barren soil, and were desirous of locating on the more fertile lands. 
They may have been, however, actuated by political reasons ; the 
people of New England under the Protectorate had enjoyed the 
utmost freedom in the administration of civil affairs, and it was 
natural that on the restoration of Charles II. they should feel some 
misgivings as to the security of their rights and liberities. The col- 
onists of New Haven were strongly embued with republican sent- 
iments, and it was with the greatest reluctance that they consented 
to proclaim the new monarch and to congratulate him on his acces- 
sion to the throne. 

The thoughts of the people of Connecticut at this time turned to 
the more liberal government of New Netherland, and negotiations 
were entered into with Governor Stuyvesant by those who had set- 
tled on Long Island, for lands at Achter Kull on Newark Bay. The 
first of those applicants was John Strickland, a resident of Hunt- 
ington, Long Island, in behalf of himself and other New England 
people. This application was received by the Director-General at 
an opportune time, as the Dutch rulers had decided upon the policy 
of inviting republicans disaffected on account of the restoration of 
the English monarchy, to settle in their dominions, where they 
could enjoy civil and religious freedom. The Dutch West India 
Company had also adopted a charter of "Conditions and Priv- 
ileges" of a very liberal character. Mr. Strickland, therefore, 
received a favorable answer to his application, but no settlement 
was effected. 



The people of New Haven Colony were also further disturbed by 
the action of the General Court of Connecticut, which sent its gov- 
ernor, John Winthrop, to England to procure a charter for the col- 
ony to embrace the territory "eastward from the line of Plymouth 
colony, northward to the limits of Massachusetts colony, and west- 
ward to the Bay of Delaware, and also the islands contiguous." 
It was not strange that the liberal proposals of the Dutch govern- 
ment should meet with favorable reception in the towns of the New 
Haven Colony. A deputation was sent to New Amsterdam to make 
further inquiry and ascertain the character of the lands to be set- 
tled. This deputation was courteously entertained by the governor 
and council, and made so favorable a report that a second deputa- 
tion visited New Amsterdam, with power to negotiate with Governor 
Stuyvesant for the settlement of a plantation near the Raritan 

This attempt to effect a settlement failed on account of one 
condition which the Director-General and the Council of New Am- 
sterdam were unwilling to concede. The New Haven people wanted 
absolutely an independent community with all the rights of self- 
government. They were to gather a church in the congregational 
way; the right of calling a Synod by the English churches that 
might be gathered in New Netherland for regulation of their eccle- 
siastical affairs; the right to administer justice in civil matters 
within themselves by magistrates of their own selection, without 
appeal to other authorities ; the purchase of the lands by the Dutch 
government from the natives and a full conveyance thereof to the 
associates forever; none to be allowed to settle among them except 
by their own consent; the right to collect debts — and a written 
charter stipulating these rights in full. All these conditions were 
freely granted except the concession of self-government without 
appeal, which would give the proposed colony greater liberty than 
was enjoyed by the other towns and settlements of New Nether- 
land. The delegation insisting upon the fullest concession of pop- 
ular rights, the conference was broken off. Although the negotia- 
tions were renewed at subsequent times, no satisfactory results 
were arrived at during the continuance of the jurisdiction of the 
Dutch. Later, in 1663, occurred the revolt against the Dutch gov- 
ernment by the English people of Long Island, who placed them- 
selves under the jurisdiction of Connecticut. An attempt made 



l>v a party of twenty Englishmen from Long Island to land at the 
mouth of the Raritan river with the intention of purchasing a plan- 
tation from the Indians, was frustrated by an armed party sent for 
that purpose by Governor Stuyvesant. 

Immediately upon the assumption of the government by Colonel 
Nicolls, the attention of those settlers who several years before 
sought removal to Achter Kull, was directed again to this inviting 
region. An association was formed, and several of their number 
were dispatched to New York to secure from the governor liberty to 
purchase and settle a plantation. Four weeks after the surrender 
of New Amsterdam, Governor Nicolls granted the petition of John 
Bailies, Daniel Denton, Thomas Benydick, Nathaniel Denton, John 
Foster and Luke Watson, for the settlement of a plantation of New 
Jersey. A tract of land was purchased of the Indians; in a deed 
given by them the names of John Bayley, Daniel Denton and Luke 
Watson appear, while in the official confirmation given by Governor 
Nicolls the names of John Ogden of Northampton and Captain John 
Baker of New York are added. The tract is described as bounded 
"on the south by the Raritan river, east to the sea which divides 
Staten Island from the main land, to run northwards up the bay 
until you come to the first river, and to run westward twice the 
length of the breadth of the tract from north to south." This tract 
contained 500,000 acres upland and meadows, in fair proportions, 
well watered, diversified with level plains and ranges of hills of 
considerable elevation, the soil of the uplands being mostly of clay 
loam and shale susceptible of a high state of cultivation. It extend- 
ed from the mouth of the Raritan on the south to the mouth of the 
Passaic on the north, a distance of seventeen miles, and running 
back into the country thirty-four miles, embracing the towns of 
Woodbridge, Piscataway, Union county, parts of the towns of New- 
ark and Clinton, a small part of Morris county, and a considerable 
portion of Somerset county. 

Having secured absolute proprietorship, measures were taken for 
a speedy and effective occupation of the domain. The precise date 
when the settlement of what was to become Elizabethtown was 
actually commenced is not known. When, on July 29, 1665, Gov- 
ernor Carteret arrived on the good ship "Philip" at New York, 
with a party of thirty settlers, including eighteen male servants, a 
cumber of whom were French, he allowed but a few days to elapse 




before taking possession of the new province. Arriving at th 
Point, the entrance of the creek, where the Connecticut settlers 
had laid out their town, he was met by the settlers gathered about 
the landing to receive the newcomers. Governor Carteret submitted 
his credentials to Ogden and his townsmen. The enterprising set- 
tlers had unwittingly prepared a capital for the new governor iu 
the primitive wilderness, and made a promising beginning in the 
way of improvements. 

The settlers of the first two or three years were mainly of one 
class and of the same origin, almost wholly New Englanders from 
Long Island and Connecticut. Very few of the planters for the 
first five years came over directly from the Mother Country. Gov- 
ernor Carteret, anxious for the growth of the new province, con- 
firmed the grants of Governor Nicolls ; although they were repu- 
diated by the Duke of York, he was lenient in enforcing the terms of 
the concessions, and allowed the Hempstead Code of Laws to stand. 
He purchased a lot from one of the associates and established a res- 
idence, and, with a hoe carried on his shoulder, thereby intimated 
his intention to become a planter. He sent word far and wide 
through the colonies that New Jersey was open for settlement under 
the protection of a governor. Two years passed, the province 
commenced to grow, ships came and went, bringing settlers and 
merchandise ; the Puritans of Connecticut obtained a grant on the 
Passaic river. In April, 1668, the governor issued his first call for 
a General Assembly to meet at Elizabethtown, May 25, 1668. It 
was in session five days, and enacted the Elizabethtown Code of 
Laws. This code differed but slightly from the Hempstead Code of 
Laws formulated in 1664 at Hempstead, Long Island. Differences, 
however, arose between the governor and delegates ; the former dis- 
solved the Assembly, and for two years refused to call another, 
carrying on the government with the aid of his council. 

In the meantime the Lord Proprietors were involved in financial 
troubles in England; Berkeley had been detected in the basest cor- 
ruption and had been deprived of office; Carteret was accused of 
being a defaulter of the funds of the navy. These circumstances 
led to a renewal of a scheme to annex New Jersey to the Province of 
New York, in which Colonel Nicolls had always been interested. 
Measures were accordingly taken by the Duke of York to further 
this scheme, which was nearly consummated, but by some turn of the 



political wheels, the two proprietors regained royal favors, received 
appointments in Ireland, retained possession of their charter, and 
Elizabethtown remained the seat of government, the residence of 
the governor and his officials. 

Between the governor and the popular branch of the government 
had grown up an irreconcilable difference. The Assembly, though 
the governor refused to convene it, met in 1G70, again March 26, 
1671, adjourning to May 14, 1671. It was then called the Assembly, 
or the House of Burgesses, and deputies were present from Eliza- 
beth, Newark, Bergen, Woodbridge and Piscataway. The governor 
refusing to preside over the Assembly either in person or by deputy, 
the members appointed Captain James Carteret, a son of Sir 
George, who was then residing in Elizabethtown, presiding officer. 
The occasion of Captain Carteret being in Elizabethtown was that 
he was on his way to North Carolina to take possession of his newly 
acquired domain as landgrave. He had been requested by his father 
to call upon Governor Carteret to confer with him in respect to the 
affairs of the province. The captain seems, in order to conciliate 
the aggrieved planters, to have taken their side, as on his elevation 
as presiding officer of the Assembly he issued a warrant for the 
arrest of William Pardon, the secretary of the House, for refusing 
to deliver the acts and proceedings of the Assembly, which had 
been destroyed by the order of the governor. Pardon was arrested, 
but made his escape, fleeing to Bergen, where Governor Carteret 
and his council were in session. The executive and his council 
issued a document at Bergen, May 28, 1671, declaring his purpose 
that unless the people would declare their submission in ten days 
he should proceed against them as mutineers and enemies of the 
government. Pardon was appointed to read this proclamation be- 
fore a town meeting; an order was issued for his arrest, his house 
was broken into, and all his movables carried away. The governor, 
by the advice of his council, determined to lay the grievances of the 
province before the Lord Proprietors. Thereupon he sailed for 
England with some of his officials, appointing John Berry deputy 
governor in his place. Captain James Carteret occupied the gov- 
ernment house at Elizabethtown, making frequent visits to New 
York, and on April 15, 1673, married Frances, daughter of Captain 
Thomas Delavall, merchant and mayor of that city. He had hardly 
completed his honeymoon when he received dispatches and instruc- 



tions from his aged father requiring him to retire from the scene of 
conflict and look after his patrimony in Carolina. Just at this 
juncture, in July, 1673, New York surrendered to the Dutch rule. 
By the treaty of Westminster, concluded the following year between 
England and Holland, all conquests were mutually restored; New 
Jersey consequently again passed into the hands of the English. 

Governor Carteret returned from England in November, 1674, 
Berkeley had sold his half of the province, and Sir George Cart- 
eret had become sole proprietor of East Jersey under a new patent 
from the Duke of York, who had received a new charter from 
Charles II. Time had softened the animosity of the people, and 
Governor Carteret was warmly welcomed. Life at the court of the 
Stuarts had confirmed Carteret in his opinions, and the Dutch rule 
had strengthened the spirit of freedom in the people, and the same 
disagreement arose almost at once. Not content to let old griev- 
ances drop, Carteret revived the old questions of land patents and 
other matters of former dissensions. The people offered to com- 
promise, but the governor refused to recede from his position, and 
the people were obliged to yield. A season of comparative peace 
followed, and the province developed under Carteret's rule. 

The same ship in which Carteret sailed from England brought as 
a passenger Sir Edmund Andros, a kinsman, the newly appointed 
governor of New York. Later he became governor of all the colo- 
nies, and in his attempt to extend his jurisdiction over New Jersey 
came in conflict with the government of Carteret, and also with the 
desires and interests of the people, who united in common cause 
against a formidable enemy, and all former animosities were for- 
gotten. In March, 1680, Andros notified Carteret that he intended 
to take military possession of the province and to erect a fort at 
Sandy Point. Carteret was decided in his opposition, but the dog- 
matic Andros treacherously effected the capture of the gover- 
nor, confining him in prison. Carteret was brought to trial for pre- 
suming to exercise jurisdiction within the bounds of His Majesty's 
letters-patent granted to the Duke of York. The jury, however, 
declared him not guilty, and he was acquitted, but an order was 
appended to the judgment of the court requiring him to give secur- 
ity that he would not exercise jurisdiction either civil or military in 
the province of New Jersey. Upon his release on parole, Carteret 
appealed to the new government, and occupied his leisure in leading 


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the life of a private citizen at Elizabcthtown, improving his estate, 
(he erection of a new house, and in getting married. In March, 
16S1, on receipt of letters from England, Governor Carteret resum- 
ed office by proclamation and took up the controversy with the 
people, which remained a matter of litigation until the Revolution 
intervened. The heirs of Sir George Carteret having sold their 
interests in East Jersey, the governor was superseded in November, 
1682, by Deputy Governor Thomas Rudyard. His death occurred 
soon afterwards, December 10, 1682, in his forty-fourth year, un- 
doubtedly hastened by the exposure and ill treatment at the time 
of his arrest by Andros. 

The colonization of Elizabethtown stimulated and encouraged 
the settlement of the country laying west in the Valley of the Rar- 
itan. Daniel Pierce, with other associates residing in Newbury, 
Massachusetts, on May 21, 1666, entered into an agreement with 
Governor Carteret, John Ogden and Luke Watson, to settle two 
townships. The tract specified was known as Achtur Kull, or Am- 
boyle, originally granted by Governor Nicolls to John Bailey, Daniel 
Denton and Luke Watson, extending from the Raritan river to the 
Rawack river and running back into the country, according to the 
Indian deed. In consideration of £80 sterling, one-half of this tract 
was transferred to Pierce, December 11, 1666. A week later he 
transferred to John Martin, Charles Gilman, Hugh Dunn and Hope- 
well Hull a third part of the land he had thus acquired. On Decem- 
ber 3, 1667, Pierce was commissioned deputy-surveyor to lay out 
the bounds of a town to be known as W'oodbridge, and to apportion 
the land belonging to each individual. On June 11, 1669, he and 
his associates received a charter which created the tract of land 
therein described (said to contain six miles square) into a township 
to consist of not less than sixty families. By a resolution adopted 
on that day, this number of families was not to be exceeded unless 
by special order of the town. 

The majority of the first settlers came from New England, and 
most of them were descendants from the Puritans. The inhabitants 
of Woodbridge pursued the even tenor of their ways amidst the 
quietness and sobriety of a secluded agricultural people. Wood- 
bridge had ten thousand acres for the town and twenty thousand for 
adjoining plantations, several of these being highly improved. A 



court house and prison were there, and the possession of a charter 
gave to the town a peculiar consideration in the province. At the 
time of the transfer of East Jersey to the twenty-four Proprietors, 
March 14, 1682, Woodbridge's population was estimated at six hun- 
dred. The inhabitants were loyal to the Dutch and English gov- 
ernors, to the proprietaries' interests or royal prerogatives, which- 
ever had the ascendancy. Plain Samuel Dennis, justice under Eng- 
lish rule, became Samuel Dennis, schepen, when the Hollanders 
temporarily gained the supremacy. The town with equal facility 
was transferred from the province of New Jersey to the schoutship 
of Achter Kull in the New Netherland. 

The affairs of Woodbridge were managed as in New England at 
town meetings, and in January, 1699, it became necessary to make 
it obligatory to attend these meetings under a penalty of nine pence 
for non-attendance, and upon refusal to pay the fine the delinquent 
was to be turned out of the meeting house. The early residents 
deemed it necessary to prepare against Indian attacks, and a rate 
was levied to provide ten pounds of powder and twenty pounds 
of lead ; the prison was ordered to be fortified by stockades of a half 
or whole tree of nine feet long at least, to provide a place of safety 
for the women and children, but it was never occupied. A ranger 
of the woods was appointed to prevent danger threatened by the 
French and Indians. These are the only occurrences on record 
intimating the existence of any apprehended difficulty with the na- 

The early associates of Piscataway came principally from the 
region watered by the Piscataqua river, which now is a portion of 
the boundary line of Maine and New Hampshire. It is the Indian 
name of one of the eastern tribes, and the orthography of the town's 
name was changed soon after its settlement to its present form. The 
first settlers were of more mixed nationality than the New England 
settlers of Woodbridge. 

The original settlers in the vicinity of New Brunswick were Dutch 
and French Protestants. There were, however, in 1693, some Eng- 
lish and Dutch plantations on the Raritan above and below the 
present city of New Brunswick, while the central part was only a 
swamp. In June, 1681, John Inian and company purchased from 
the Indians a tract of land embracing ten thousand acres on the 
south side of the Raritan river opposite the township of Piscataway. 



This tract afterwards became known as the Raritan lots, and is now 
the lower edge of New Brunswick, running along the river to near 
Bound Brook. The tract was soon afterwards surveyed and laid 
out into nineteen lots having in general less than a half of mile of 
river front and about two miles deep, aggregating about six hun- 
dred and forty acres. John Inian purchased two of these lots in 
what is now New Brunswick; to the north of his purchase, lots were 
sold to Gibbons, Inian, Bainbridge, Bridgeman, Miller, Jones, Clem- 
ents, Antill and Dockwra. South of Inian's purchase, Thomas 
Lawrence bought three thousand acres; this tract subsequently 
came into the possession of Cornelius Longfield and Governor Bar- 
clay, while that of Inian was purchased by Philip French, who laid 
out streets upon it and cut it up into building lots and farms. 

The first Dutch came about 1683, principally from Long Island. 
The condition of affairs cannot be better illustrated than giving ex- 
tracts from a Scotchman's letter to his brother in Edinburgh. He 
writes that the Indians are nothing to fear, the country being as 
peaceable as anywhere else. There are no bears, nor ravenous 
beasts except wolves, which are harmless; snakes are not to be 
noticed, as they give timely warning of an attack by the rattling of 
their tails. Oxen are so well taught they go sometimes in a plough 
or cart without horse or without a gad-man. Horses and cattle are 
as cheap as in Scotland. The air, he writes, is healthful, the soil 
fruitful, Indian corn yielding commonly two or three hundred fold 
and oats twenty fold. He informs his brother that there were sev- 
eral reasonably good towns in the province of more than eighty 
families each, that there were no poor people, and the liquor they 
used was cider, as there was a great store of fruit. The old inhabi- 
tants, he states, are a most careful and infrugal people, their pro- 
fession most part Protestants, a few Quakers, and some Anabap- 
tists, but there was a lack of preachers and he hoped his brother 
would be instrumental in filling this want. 

The point at the mouth of the Raritan river is first mentioned 
in the deed of Augustine Heermans by the name of Ompage. In the 
subsequent deed to Bailey, Denton and Watson, no particular name 
is given to either the point or country, but the next year, Bailey 
transferring his rights to Philip Carteret, calls the country, Arthur 
Kull or Emboyle, which was written Amboyle; from these names 
Ambo was derived and conferred upon the point. In granting the 



charter of Woodbridge, it was specified that one thousand acres 
should be reserved in and about Ambo Point, one hundred acres of 
which were to be laid out in the most convenient place adjacent to 
the point. This reservation is a proof of sound discrimination and 
judgment of Governor Carteret, as it was a most eligible site for the 
situation of a city. He most likely had in mind the opposition to his 
authority shown at Elizabethtown, which induced him to recom- 
mend the removal of the seat of government to some place where the 
interests of the proprietaries would be more regarded. The trans- 
fer of the province into other hands and the death of Carteret pre- 
vented the realization of his plans. The new proprietaries also were 
interested in establishing a city at the Point, and contributed £1,200 
in furtherance of the project, but their deputy governors were 
slow in making progress, and it was not until 1684 that any effec- 
tive steps were taken. In that year, Lawrie, the then deputy gover- 
nor, received positive orders to remove the offices of government 
from Elizabethtown to what was then called the new town of Perth. 
In December, 1685, an arrival of more than ordinary interest 
occurred at the Point. A vessel freighted with Scotchmen upon 
whom persecution had wrought the work of purification and whose 
souls had been tempered for patient endurance by sore trials and 
misfortunes, anchored in the harbor. They were Scotch Covenan- 
ters, members of the Cameronians, a sect of Scotch Presbyterian 
dissenters. James I. had enforced on his Scottish subjects a liturgy 
which the people abhorred. This exercise of the royal prerogative 
led in 1638 to the formation of a covenant in behalf of the true relig- 
ion and freedom of the Kirkdom. The organization of the Scottish 
Presbytery was still further completed in the adoption of the Pres- 
byterian form of church government, a Calvinistic confession of 
faith, and the two catechisms, which documents are still the stand- 
ard of the Scottish Kirk. The act of English and Scottish parlia- 
ments against conventicles, the legalized persecutions, with other 
irritating matters, exasperated the Covenanters to a point where 
they thought forbearance ceased to be a duty. They therefore took 
up arms against the royal power and were disastrously beaten, and 
many executed and imprisoned. They were mostly inhabitants of 
the Lowlands of Scotland, the Highlanders being generally adher- 
ents of the Koman Catholic religion or the Church of England. 
To these people America offered a refuge, and through the exertions 



of George Scot, Laird of Pitloehie, early in May, 1685, a ship of 
three hundred and fifty tons named the "Henry and Francis" of 
Newcastle, England, was chartered. On September 5, 1G85, the ves- 
sel left the harbor of Leith, Scotland, having on board nearly two 
hundred passengers, some of whom had been on board since the 
previous summer. The voyage was long and disastrous, fifteen 
weeks being consumed in crossing the ocean. A fever of a malig- 
nant type broke out, and the meat, owing probably to the length of 
time which had elapsed since the vessel was chartered, became 
offensive and uneatable. As many as seventy died at sea, among 
whom was George Scot, Laird of Pitloehie, his wife also, her sister- 
in-law, Lady Althernie, and her two children. 

The charge for transportation as publicly announced was £5 sterl- 
ing for each adult, and to each of those who was unable to pay for 
his passage Avas promised twenty-five acres of land and a suit of 
new clothes on the completion of four years' service to those who 
advanced the requisite amount. After their arrival, considerable 
difficulty took place on account of those that had come over without 
paying their passage money. An attempt was made to have them 
serve their four years' indenture in consideration of the expense in- 
curred by Scot for their transportation. This they would not agree 
to, and suits were brought. The jury returned a verdict for the 
plaintiff of £5 sterling and costs. It is a difficult matter to deter- 
mine how many of these Scotch Covenanters became permanent 
residents of Perth Amboy. A large number of them returned to 
England; others, on the accession of William and Mary to the 
throne of England, returned to their native land. 

The Dutch at New Netherland took the first steps for civil organi- 
zation of East Jersey. They established in 16G1 the jurisdiction of 
the incorporated town of Bergen over the outlying and contiguous 
plantations on the west side of the Hudson river. The courts of 
Bergen under the supreme authority of the director-general and 
council of Manhattan were sufficient to meet all requirements of 
local administration over so limited a district of country, and were 
continued for more than a decade after the English came into pos- 
session of the country. 

In the meantime a sufficient population had settled about New- 
ark Bay, along the Passaic, the Earitan, and southward to the High- 



lands of the Navesink, to foreshadow in outline at least the necessity 
for erecting four original counties in East Jersey. The Legisla- 
ture of 1675 enacted that Elizabethtown and Newark make a county; 
Bergen and adjacent plantations be a county; Woodbridge and 
Piscataqua be a county; and that the two towns, Middletown and 
Shrewsbury at Navesink, make a county. By this act the incipient 
counties were neither named nor their limits defined. Seven years 
later a more definite division was made. The General Assembly of 
East Jersey convened at Elizabethtown in 1682 passed an act erect- 
ing the counties of Bergen, Essex, Middlesex and Monmouth. The 
preamble for the erection of these counties states the following: 
"Having taken into consideration the necessity of dividing the pro- 
vince into respective counties for the better governing and settling 
of courts in the same," etc. 

Middlesex county by the legislative act of 16S2 was to begin 
from the parting line between Essex county and Woodbridge, con- 
taining Woodbridge and Piscataway and all the plantations on both 
sides of the Earitan river as far as the Delaware river eastward, 
extending southwest to the division line of the province, and north- 
west to the utmost bounds of the county. 

By an act of the Assembly in March, 1688, Somerset county was 
incorporated. The territory thus taken from Middlesex county was 
its western border lands, the Earitan river forming part of the 
boundary lines. The reason given for this division was that those 
engaged in husbandry and manuring of lands in the valley of the 
uppermost part of the Earitan river were forced by different ways 
and methods from the other farmers and inhabitants of the county 
of Middlesex, because of the frequent floods that carry away their 
fences on their meadows, the only available land they have, and so 
by consequence their interest is divided from the other inhabitants 
of the county. This division, however, was merely nominal, and in 
1709-10, by an act of the Assembly, Somerset was continued sub- 
jected to the jurisdiction of the courts and officers of Middlesex 
county for the want of a competent number of inhabitants to hold 
court and for juries. Courts continued to be held in Middlesex for 
the two counties as late as 1720, when Somerset county courts were 
duly organized. 

There have been a number of acts passed by the Legislature in 
reference to regulating the boundary lines of Middlesex county. On 



January 31, 1709-10, an act was passed determining the boundaries 
of the several counties. This act was supplemented March 15, 1713, 
setting the boundaries between Somerset, Middlesex and Monmouth 
counties, in which the line between Somerset and Middlesex should 
begin with the road crossing the Karitan at Inian's Ferry, thence 
to run along a road leading to the falls of the Delaware as far as 
the partition line between East and West Jersey. 

In accordance with this act, Somerset county extended down 
one side of the present Albany street, New Brunswick. This, how- 
ever, by an act passed November 24, 1790, was altered, the boundary 
line between the two counties being established by the lands and ten- 
ements northward of the Karitan river to be annexed to Somerset 
county, while those south of the river were to become a part of 
Middlesex county. This act made the middle of the main road from 
New Brunswick to Trenton the boundary line between Middlesex 
and Somerset counties. 

The easterly bounds of Middlesex county, by an act passed No- 
vember 28, 1822, were declared to be the middle or midway of the 
waters of the Staten Island Sound, adjoining same, to the middle of 
the channel of the waters of the Sound, with the waters of Earitan 
river, thence to the eastward of the flat or shoal which extends from 
South Amboy to the mouth of Whale creek, the beginning of the 
bounds of the counties of Middlesex and Monmouth. A part of 
Middlesex with a portion of the counties of Hunterdon and Burling- 
ton was taken by an act dated February 22, 1838, to form the county 
of Mercer. 

By acts of the Legislature, the western boundary of Middle- 
sex county in the towns of North Brunswick and South Brunswick 
were made to conform in 1855 and 1858 with a turnpike road extend- 
ing from Little Rocky Hill to New Brunswick. A part of the town- 
ship of Woodbridge, by an act of February 16, 1860, within the lim- 
its of the city of Bahway, was annexed to Union county, and April 5, 
1871, by another act a portion of Plainfield in Union county was 
annexed to the township of Piscataway in Middlesex county. 

The first act dividing the newly organized counties into town- 
ships was passed in 1693. The division in Middlesex county was 
into the corporated town of Woodbridge, the townships of Perth 
Amboy, then grist and saw mill, an extensive pottery, and fifty 
dwellings. Bonhamtown was a small gathering of dwellings. 



There were no further sub-divisions of Middlesex county until 
February 28, 1860, when East Brunswick was incorporated from 
parts of the townships North Brunswick and Monroe. On the same 
day, by an act of the Assembly, New Brunswick was separated from 
North Brunswick, which had been known since 1S03 as the North 
Ward of New Brunswick. The next township to be organized was 
Madison, from South Amboy, March 3, 1869. The following year, 
on March 17, Raritan became a township, its territory being taken 
from Woodbridge and Piscataway. The township of Cranbury was 
formed from a part of South Brunswick and Monroe, March 7, 1872, 
and twelve hundred and fifty acres of the township of South Amboy 
was incorporated April 6, 1876, as the township of Sayreville. 

The first courthouse and jail in Middlesex county was erected at 
Perth Amboy. In the proprietary minutes under date of May 14, 
1685, it was ordered that a town house be built, stipulating it should 
be erected on a lot owned by one Thomas Warne. The location of 
this lot is uncertain, but it was probably one running through from 
High street to Water street, in the new town of Perth. In April, 
1696, £20 was voted to Mr. Warne to release this lot again. How- 
ever, previous to this, Thomas Gordon was directed to fit up one 
of the old houses of the proprietaries for a courthouse. Whether 
this was occupied under the royal provincial government is not 

An act was passed in 1713 for building and repairing jails and 
courthouses in the province, and Amboy was designated as the site 
for the jail and courthouse of Middlesex county. The building erect- 
ed in conformity with this act stood on the northeast corner of High 
street and the public square, and served for both tries and tried, the 
prison being under the same roof with the courthouse. It was also 
used for legislative purposes from Governor Hunter's to Governor 
Franklin's administrations inclusive. It was destroyed by fire in 
1765-66, accidentally, it is said, in the act providing for the erection 
of another. The second courthouse was erected June 28, 1766, on 
land donated by the inhabitants of Perth Amboy. It was a two- 
story building adorned with a cupola or belfry. This structure was 
used until the transfer of the county seat to New Brunswick, after- 
wards became a school house, but eventually passed into private 
hands. The jail authorized by the same act was finished at an 
expense of £200 in 1767. It was also a two-story building contain- 



ing rooms for the keeper's family, in addition to those for prison- 
ers. The city authorities of Perth Amboy ordered its destruction 
in 1826. 

In the early part of January, 1793, a matter of local interest was 
the question "where shall our new courthouse be situated?" The 
change of the county seat of Middlesex county had been sanctioned 
by the Legislature, and the two rivals for the honor and profit were 
Perth Amboy and New Brunswick. The former claimed for a mat- 
ter of economy the courthouse should be erected in that city, which 
already had a suitable building, that it was a free port of entry, and 
that they were willing to transport officials, witnesses, and those 
interested in matters brought before the court, free of charge across 
the ferry, from Perth Amboy to South Amboy. New Brunswick 
was not behind hand in its offer, claiming to be the largest town, on 
the line of a stage route, the center of a prosperous agricultural 
country; that the business done far exceeded Perth Amboy, and on 
the question of finance they were willing to contribute £300 for the 
building of a new courthouse in that city. The election was held 
March 10, 1793, and though there were 2,540 ballots cast, as late as 
nine days afterwards only 1,900 of these had been counted, of which 
New Brunswick had 980 and Perth Amboy 900; this seems, how- 
ever, to have settled the contest, as New Brunswick became the 
county seat . 

The common council of New Brunswick, April 29, 1793, assessed 
the inhabitants of the city for the £300 promised for the construc- 
tion of a new courthouse. A number of the citizens who were resi- 
dents of Somerset county refused to pay the taxes thus levied, and 
in the case of one delinquent his goods were attached. The case 
was carried to the Supreme Court, and at a session of this body at 
the November term, in 1796, Chief Justice Kinsey delivered the 
opinion of the court. The judgment of the court below was affirmed, 
that the corporation ordinance and tax were illegal, that its effect 
was to compel inhabitants of the Somerset side of the city, who had to 
build and maintain a courthouse of their own, to assist in defraying 
the expenses of a public building in another county. The Chief Jus- 
tice reiterates, "for these reasons alone, without entering into the 
peculiar circumstances which in the case furnish strong suspicions 
of intentional and premeditated deceptions in this double-faced 
transaction, we are of the opinion that the vote of the 2nd of Febru- 



ary, 1793, imposing a tax of £300 upon the citizens of New Bruns- 
wick for purposes set forth, was illegal and void, and of conse- 
quence the assessment of it; the ordinance directing the time of 
payment, the duplicates and warrants of distress, having no valid 
foundation, are all likewise void." 

The decision of the Supreme Court did not, however, interfere 
with New Brunswick becoming the county seat. A court of common 
pleas had been held in that city since 1778, and £100 was expended 
on the Barracks, situated on the west side of George street near 
Paterson street, where soldiers were quartered during the Revolu- 
tion. The barracks were destroyed by fire in 1791, and in that year 
the "Union" or Old City Hall, corner of Neilson and Bayard 
streets, was built and used for a courthouse, while a jail was erect- 
ed on the site of the Bayard street public school. This building was 
utilized till about 1840, when the present courthouse was built, the 
sum of $30,000 being obtained from the State, borrowed from the 
"Surplus Revenue Fund" to aid in its completion. The present 
building has been remodeled and renovated at different times, mak- 
ing a commodious and substantial building for the transaction of the 
official business of the county. 

In the seventeenth century, where New Brunswick now stands, 
there was a dense cedar forest interspersed with a swamp. A mys- 
tic tradition which the ancient records do not verify states that the 
first inhabitant, Daniel Cooper, settled where the postroad after- 
wards crossed the river, and kept a ferry. This Cooper was one of 
the early purchasers and settlers under the proprietors, and his 
name appears as such on the schedule to the Elizabethtown Bill. 
This record states that his tract of land of two thousand acres was 
on the "Passack" river, and therefore the conclusion is drawn that 
it did not extend as far west as the Raritan river, therefore he had 
no connection with the early settlement of New Brunswick. 

In Watson's "Annals of Philadelphia" is preserved an item from 
"William Edmundson's Journal. An early traveler in East Jersey 
in 1675, he made a journey southward from New York, and in going 
from Middletown to the Delaware river, accompanied by an Indian 
guide, they lost their way in the wilderness, and were obliged to 
return to the Raritan river. He tells of coming to a "small landing 
from New York," which was no doubt the crossing of the path where 




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afterwards Iman's Ferry was established. These early travelers 
wended their way along a small path, with no tame animal in sight, 
kindling in the wilderness a fire by the side of which they slept, 
and finally reaching Delaware Falls, now the site of the city of Tren- 

On November 10, 1681, John Inian and company bought two lots 
which form the principal site of the city of New Brunswick. The 
tract thus purchased had a mile of river front and was two miles in 
depth. Inian, with Joseph Benbridge and others, petitioned the 
Governor and Council on March 1, 1682, for a patent of the lands 
they had purchased from the Indians. The warrant was for six 
thousand acres, but it appears that the surveyor had laid out 7,680 
acres without the reservation of the seventh that was the proportion 
of the proprietors. The Council, however, determined that the 
petitioners should have patents for the land, John Inian to receive 
one thousand acres, and all others five hundred acres each on pay- 
ment of one half-penny an acre, the overplus of the tract to be 
appropriated to the proprietors in lieu of their seventh. A map 
made in 16S5 by John Keid, at that time first deputy surveyor under 
the proprietors, gives the situation and outlines of nineteen lots des- 
ignated as the "Karitan Lots," lying on the mouth of South river, 
past the present site of New Brunswick to Bound Brook, seventeen 
of which have each about a half a mile of river front by about two 
miles in depth, and extending in a southwesterly direction inland. 
Beginning at the mouth of South river, the first of these lots is 
marked to "Law Baker" and contains 1,300 acres; the next to "C. 
P. Sommans," 1,000 acres; the next to "Governor Barclay," 500 
acres; the next to C. Longfield, 500 acres; the two next to "John 
Inians," each 610 acres. This last is shown on the map to be the 
"fording place," designated by a hand pointing towards it, also by 
the word "falles" written opposite. This was the original site of 
New Brunswick ; the falles were a rocky rift extending across the 
river, making the stream so shallow it could be easily crossed at low 
water in a wagon or on horseback. 

Soon after Inian 's settlement, he set up a ferry, and on April 
19, 1686, he addressed a communication to the Governor and Council 
of East Jersey, stating that at considerable expense he had made 
a road to Delaware Falls from his house on the Raritan, which was 
six miles shorter than a former road, and had furnished himself 



with all accommodations as boats, canoes, etc., for ferrying over the 
Raritan river all those traveling with horses and cattle. He desired 
the board to settle the rates to be charged for transportation across 
the Raritan, but whether it was legally established as a ferry at this 
time is doubtful. The proprietors, however, on November 2, 1697, 
granted the ferry for the lives of Inian and his wife and to the sur- 
vivor at a rental of five shillings sterling per annum. The place con- 
tinued to be called Inian 's Ferry, though it was variously corrupted 
into Inions, Innions, Onions and Inyance, in the public acts and rec- 
ords as late as 1723. In that year, there being only one street in 
the hamlet, called Broad street and now Burnet street, the county 
^ourt was petitioned by Henry Freeman, William Harris, Timothy 
Bloomiield and Dirck Van Aersdalen to lay out a road and two 

The earliest use of the name New Brunswick is found in the 
minutes of the county court, April 7, 1724, when two surveyors of 
roads and two constables were appointed. After this date it ceased 
to be called by the name of Inian 's. Though this was ten years 
after the accession of the House of Brunswick to the throne of Great 
Britain, it is presumable that the future city was named in its honor. 
At this early period the population was very small, although it was 
beginning to overshadow the older settlements of Woodbridge, 
Perth Amboy and Piscataway, and its importance as a commercial 
center was at least flattering. The adjacent territory was rapidly 
filling up with settlers, and quoting James Alexander, who settled 
at Inian 's Ferry in 1715, there were at that time only four or five 
houses in the thirty miles between Inian 's Ferry and Falls of the 
Delaware (Trenton). Fifteen years later there was almost a con- 
tinuous line of fences and houses of farmers engaged in raising 
wheat, and as New Brunswick was the nearest landing, it became the 
store house for their produce. This caused the embyro town to 
increase in population, and a plot of ground in the center of the 
village commanded as high a price as the same size lot in the heart 
of New York City. 

About this period several Dutch families immigrated from Al- 
bany, New York, bringing with them building material and locating 
along the public road. They were men of considerable property and 
enterprise; prominent amongst them were Dirck Schuyler, Hend- 
rick Van Deursen, Dirck Van Veghten, Abraham Schuyler, John 



, :i Broeck, Nicholas Van Dyke, and Dirck Van Alen. The arrival 

I ;hose settlers gave a fresh impulse to trade. The principal 
. r-'t'ts were Burnet, Water and Albany, with a few buildings on 
t'hurch, the inhabitants living along the river as far south as Son- 
■ .Hi's Hill, extending north a short distance above the ferry; the 
:: creased population and activity resulted in the incorporation in 
i7:;0 of the township of New Brunswick. 

Peter Kami, a professor of the University of Abo in Swedish Fin- 
land, who visited North America in 1748 as a naturalist, under the 
auspices of the Swedish Royal Academy of Science, gives this de- 
scription of New Brunswick: 

About noon we arrived at New Brunswick, a pretty little town in a valley on the 

* est side -*f the river Raritan. On account of its low situation it cannot be seen coming 
i:-.-m Pennsylvania before arriving at the top of the hill which is close to it. The town 
extends north and south along the river. The town-house makes a prett}' good appear- 
ince. The town has only one street lengthwise, and at its northern extremity there is a 
r-rect across. Both of these are of considerable length. One of the streets is almost 
t tircly inhabited by Dutchmen who came hither from Albany, and for that reason they 
call it Albany street. On the road from Trenton to New Brunswick I never saw any 

• I tee in America, the towns excepted, so well peopled. 

The greater part of New Brunswick's trade is to New York, which is about forty 
I Mulish miles distant. To that place they send corn, flour in great quantities, bread, 
tcveral other necessaries, a great quantity of linseed, boards, timber, wooden vessels, 
••-<) all sorts of carpenter's work. Several small yachts are every day going backward 
n\<\ forward between these two towns. The inhabitants likewise get a considerable 
profit from the travelers who every hour pass through on the high road. 

Notwithstanding all this, the embyro town must have been of very 
diminutive proportions, for a little over a quarter of a century 
later, in fact a year before the opening of the Revolutionary War, 
John Adams, afterwards President of the United States, describes 
it as follows: "Went to view the village of New Brunswick. There 
is a Church of England, a Dutch church and a Presbyterian church 
in this town. There is some little trade here; small craft can come 
np to this town. We saw a few small sloops. The river is very 
oeautiful. There is a store building for barracks, which is toler- 
ably handsome; it is about the size of Boston jail. Some of the 
streets are paved, and there are three or four handsome houses, 
only about one hundred and fifty families in the town." 

The granting of a Royal city charter to New Brunswick, Decem- 
ber 30, 1730, established two cities in Middlesex county, which was 
at that time the only county in America to embrace within its 
limits chartered municipalities. The first corporation seal of the 
new city is described as follows: On the right side of the seal, the 
goddess of agricultural bounty is represented by a sheaf of wheat 



alongside a pair of scales ; the motto reads Alma sed alequa, signi- 
fying "kindly but just." On the left side appears a ship riding 
at anchor in the Raritan, typifying commerce. The words Latae. 
revertor may be freely translated "I am glad to return home." A 
new charter was granted the city by George III. on February 12, 
1763, but devoid of its legal verbiage there is little difference in its 
importance from the one secured from George II., thirty-three years 

At the outbreak of the Revolution, the citizens of New Jersey 
assembled at New Brunswick for the purpose of formulating plans 
for the protection and support of the new-born Republic. The old 
town on the Raritan was honored by being the meeting place of the 
first Provincial Council of the Colony. After this meeting the name 
of New Brunswick hardly appears on the pages of the country's 
history. The city, however, played its part in the stirring events 
of the time. It harbored within its walls an element, wealthy and 
aristocratic, who exerted so overshadowing an influence over their 
less fortunate neighbors that it was impossible to tell who were for 
or against the patriotic cause. There were many who were avowed 
Tories, and a number of citizens who took the oath of allegiance 
proved treacherous to the cause they had sworn to support. Laying 
as it did in the path of the two armies crossing and recrossing New 
Jersey, with the varying fortunes of war, it suffered to an extent 
which few cities were subjected. The winter of 1776-77 found it in 
possession of a large force of the British army, with Lord Howe, its 
commander-in-chief, his headquarters being on Burnet street, in the 
Neilson house, while the Hessian commander, DeHeister, occupied 
the Van Nuise house on Queen street. The hill beyond the Theolog- 
ical Seminary was fortified; a post erected at Raritan Landing; 
another two miles below the city on Bennet's Island. The British 
•officers were quartered upon the inhabitants ; citizens compelled to 
abandon their residences; business was suspended; schools and 
churches broken up — the whole town being under the sway of the 
enemy. The British remained in possession about six months, Lord 
Cornwallis having command of the post. 

In the first charter obtained from the State Assembly in 1784, 
New Brunswick was raised to the dignity of a city. Within its lim- 
its were the present city and townships of North and East Bruns- 
wick. From 1784 to 1801, New Brunswick was governed by a presi- 



dent, register, four directors and six assistants, all twelve of whom 
constituted a single chamber known as the common council. They 
wore elected by the people, but by a new charter obtained in 1801, 
the governor and legislature appointed a mayor, recorder and three 
aldermen, holding office for five years, and meeting together in com- 
mon council, with six councilmen elected annually by popular vote. 
The mayor had some judicial authority, presiding over the mayor's 
court; the recorder had about the same jurisdiction as at the pres- 
ent time ; the aldermen until 1838 had the criminal authority of the 
present justice of the peace. 

At the opening of the nineteenth century the city of New Bruns- 
wick was noted as a shipping and commercial point and its vessels 
made voyages to the Bermudas, Bahamas, Jamaica, and Hispaniola 
in the West Indies; also to Charleston, South Carolina; Wilming- 
ton, De. aware; Newberne, North Carolina; Savannah, Georgia; 
Newport, Ehode Island; besides other ports. 

With the restoration of peace came a revival of business and con- 
sequent increase of travel to and from New York and Philadelphia. 
The highways were in a deplorable condition, and travelers gladly 
availed themselves of the water routes, which were less tiresome 
and much more comfortable than the bolstered wagons, the stage 
coaches of that period. The ferry across the Raritan rvier accom- 
modated the public for over a century. The Inian rights were ac- 
quired by Thomas Farmer in 1716, by an Act of Assembly, toll 
rates were fixed for a horse and man, four pence, for a single person 
two pence. In 1732 Thomas Farmer conveyed his ferry rights to 
Philip French in consideration of £300. In 1790, James Parker, of 
Perth Amboy, gave notice that he would apply to the legislature for 
a toll bridge across the river Raritan. This movement coming from 
a citizen of Perth Amboy was not entirely for the benefit of New 
Brunswick. Perth Amboy was then a seaport with considerable for- 
eign commerce, and the object of the people of that city was to 
shorten the distance of the agricultural districts around New Bruns- 
wick so trade could be diverted to their own seaport. The legisla- 
ture having passed an act to build a bridge at New Brunswick, ap- 
pointed commissioners to designate a site. They met February 21, 
1791, at the tavern of John Lane. Subsequent meetings were held 
and it was decided to build at the foot of Albany street. The bridge, 
completed in 1796, was an open structure. The stone for facing the 



original piers was freighted from Blackwell's Island, the outside 
casing of stone was filled with shale quarried on the east side of the 
Baritan river, mixed with cement. The original cost of the bridge 
was $86,695.71. 

After the restoration of peace in 1814, New Brunswick became the 
depot for the reception of grain from the counties of Warren, Hun- 
terdon, Sussex, Somerset, also Northampton, Pennsylvania, and the 
country along the upper Delaware. Large wagons drawn by four 
and six horses and carrying twenty-eight barrels of flour, some- 
times as many as five hundred a day, came down the valley of the 
Raritan. At Earitan Landing were large store houses which receiv- 
ed the grain, the sloops would take on a half a cargo, then drop 
down to New Brunswick, complete their load, and proceed to their 
destination. The White Hall tavern was headquarters for news, 
where the grain merchants could congregate, consult a New York 
paper, and fix the market prices. The New Brunswick shippers paid 
cash for merchandise, while at Newark and Philadelphia barter was 

The successful application of steam for navigation was to revolu- 
tionize the slower methods of transportation. The State of New 
York had granted to Livingston and Fulton the exclusive right of 
steam navigation. Under this right, John R. and Robert James 
Livingston had purchased the right of navigating the waters of the 
Raritan to New Brunswick — the head of navigation on that river. 
They placed on this water route the steamboat "Raritan," but in 
181S Thomas Gibbons placed upon the same route the "Bellona," a 
steamer of one hundred and sixteen tons, regularly registered at the 
port of Perth Amboy for the coasting trade under the United States 
law. The Livingstons secured an injunction restraining Gibbons 
from using his boat, claiming the exclusive right of steam naviga- 
tion on the Raritan. Gibbons denied this right and sued for dam- 
ages ; the ablest legal talent of the period was employed ; after elab- 
orate arguments by learned attorneys and exhaustive opinions by 
the presiding justices, judgment was rendered for the plaintiff, thus 
establishing an important judicial principle, namely, the right of 
comity in steam navigation between adjoining States under the 
Federal Constitution. Competing lines were soon organized, and 
rivalry became active and exciting, the inhabitants turning out in 
crowds to welcome the arrival and departure of the steamboats. 


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The region surrounding Bordentown and Burlington was a great 
peach growing section, and wagon after wagon load of this delicious 
fruit was sent to the wharfs at New Brunswick for transportation 
to New York and other eastern points. The Delaware and Raritan 
canal was completed during the year 1833, and the shipment of pro- 
ducts was simulated; the annual exportation of corn reached 300,- 
000 bushels; rye, 57,000 bushels; and a few years later 1,000,000 
bushels passed down the river. Such was the magnitude of trade 
that the Raritan was rated as one of the three greatest rivers in the 
country as to tonnage. This increase of business called many other 
steamboats into requisition. 

In 1828 the city's population was about 5,000; there were 750 
dwellings, over a hundred stores, and twenty taverns. The city's 
compact population was bounded by George and New streets ; south 
of New street, houses could be numbered on the fingers of one hand, 
barring out Burnet street, which led to the steamboat dock. The old 
stone mansion on the corner of Livingston avenue and Carrol place 
was built in 1760 by Henry Guest ; here Tom Paine was barricaded 
by his hosts, the Guests, from the violence of a royal mob, seeking to 
punish him for his treasonable writings. Here, too, were written 
those poems of the son of Moses Guest, afterwards published in 
Cincinnati, among which figure that gem, "To Pave or Not to 
Pave," and the humorous satire, "Toll Bridge." The aristocracy 
lived on Little Burnet street, in a row of elaborately finished brick 
houses. The dry goods marts were on Burnet street, the shops on 
Church street, grain warehouses on Water street, where also were 
the hotels for traders. The trade was largely wholesale, the north- 
western counties of the State and the country along the Delaware 
forwarding grain, and supplied in turn with fish, salt, dry goods and 
merchandise. The country south of the city towards Monmouth 
county was little better than a desert of sand; this was before 
the mines of marl had been exploited. 

New Brunswick's great industrial awakening had its birth in the 
thirties and forties of the last century. The city at that time was 
largely college ruled, its streets with a few exceptions unpaved, no 
gas or sewers, was supplied only with well water for drinking pur- 
poses, which was in danger of being contaminated in the lower 
portion of the city by the drainage from the upper section, thus 
being menaced with epidemics of typhoid, though science had not at 



that period taken cognizance of the dangerous properties of drink- 
ing water thus exposed. 

Though there were industries previous to this period, they were 
of primitive character. New Brunswick in early days being a sea- 
port, it was natural that a shipbuilding industry would be gener- 
ated, hence an important industry in that line was carried on by the 
Orams, the Runyons, the Hoaglands, the Kempstons, and the Wa- 
terhouses. Large fleet schooners and sloops, also seagoing craft for 
coast service, as well as barges, were built. Luke Hoagland con- 
structed several yachts for the New York Yacht Club, notable among 
them the "Minnie," a prize winner; the "Siren," and "Ibis," then 
the largest steam yacht of the squadron. He afterwards built 
launches and torpedo boats for the government. When New Bruns- 
wick ceased to be a seaport, these industries died a natural death 
and present-day industries had their beginning. 

On January 3, 1836, a locomotive named "New Brunswick," with 
thirteen cars full of guests, and decorated with banners bearing the 
names of the counties, cities and villages along the route, operated 
by the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company, was re- 
ceived by a committee of citizens in carriages, who escorted the visi- 
tors over Albany street bridge to a hotel, where a sumptuous feast 
was served. At this time all trains stopped across the river, and 
passengers were transferred across the bridge in stages at a cost of 
six and a half cents each. The railroad company built a bridge dur- 
ing the year 1837, the first train crossing the river to the depot on 
Somerset street, January 1, 1S38. The company bought the fran- 
chise from the New York and Philadelphia Turnpike Company, re- 
building the bridge and using it until they constructed a wooden 
railroad and wagon bridge on the site of the present railroad bridge. 
The advent of a railroad and the competition of the canal practically 
killed the shipping trade of New Brunswick, as it allowed the farm- 
ers to send their products direct to market from stations near their 
farms, and New Brunswick became a deserted village when the rail- 
road came to town, to be revived, however, in the future, by her 
manufacturing industries. 

. New Brunswick in 1845, with a neighborhood of 9,000 inhabi- 
tants, presented an enterprising city with its courthouse, jail, eight 
churches, college buildings, bank, one hundred and twenty stores 
and eight hundred dwellings. Though the streets immediately 







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on the river were narrow and the ground low, in the upper part of 
the city the roadways were wide and there were many fine buildings. 
Two bridges crossed the liaritan, though the Albany street bridge 
was dilapidated and not much used. The railroad bridge was also 
used for wagons and foot passengers, the trains crossing the river 
overhead on the upper portion of the bridge. This continued to be 
the mode of travel for several years, until the citizens deeming it 
unsafe, the New Brunswick Bridge Company was incorporated and 
a new bridge was constructed at the foot of Albany street. This 
bridge was conducted by the company until July 3, 1875, when it was 
purchased by the county for $58,000 and made free. 

The city in 1850 having about 10,000 inhabitants, a company 
was formed for the introduction of gas. Owing to circumstances, 
this company relinquished its franchises, and the following year 
John W. Stout, E. M. Paterson, Peter Spader, David Bishop, Ben- 
jamin D. Steele and Moses P. Webb received a legislative charter. 
A company being organized, John W. Stout became president, with 
John B. Hall, secretary, superintendent and engineer. The erec- 
tion of works was proceeded with, pipes were laid, and a gas holder 
built on the corner of Water and "Washington streets. The water 
supply for the city is taken from Lawrence's brook, southeast of 
the city limits. The works were constructed in 1864, the water 
being raised by steam pumps to a reservoir. The New Brunswick 
Water Company, the owner of the works, transferred their interests 
to the city April 30, 1873, which from this time to the adoption of a 
commission form of government was managed by a board of water 
commissioners, their terms of service being three years. 

The introduction of rapid transit marked an important era in the 
history of New Brunswick's progress and enterprise. The legisla- 
ture on February 13, 1867, granted a charter for a street railway 
which included an ordinance of the city for a franchise passed 
November 30, 1866. The parties interested in this charter never- 
availed themselves of its privileges. Matters laid dormant until in 
September, 1885, when George W. Ballon and F. M. Delano, resi- 
dents of New York, came to the city, looking for an opportunity to 
develop street railway territory. After the investigation of several 
routes, they employed C. T. Cowenhoven as their counsel to take the 
necessary steps to procure them a legal status. Judge Cowenhoven 
discovered the existence of the former charter, and that it was 



still alive and effective. In February, 1886, he secured from the 
surviving charter parties a transfer of their rights to the New- 
Brunswick City Railroad Company. 

While these movements were in progress, Woodbridge Strom-- 
representing New York capitalists, filed a certificate of incorpora- 
tion under the general incorporation act for the New Brunswick & 
Suburban Railway Company, and a struggle was commenced before 
the city council as to which company should be granted the city 
franchise. This rivalry was of short duration, it being decided in 
favor of the Cowenhoven road. The ordinance granting the New- 
Brunswick City Railway Company the franchise was passed by the 
common council, March 26, 18S6. The road was opened for public 
travel October 14, 1886, and in honor of the occasion the city build- 
ings, business blocks and residences were decorated with flags and 
bunting. The tracks for this road were laid on College avenue, bur 
later were taken up and the Easton avenue route substituted. The 
days of street horse car railroads have long since passed into obliv- 
ion ; those of the elder generation can recall when they had to leave 
their comfortable seats to place their shoulders at the front or back 
of the car to help the overworked equines to proceed on their jour- 
ney. Electricity in course of time was applied to the street railroad 
system of New Brunswick, and with its introduction the city became 
the center of a trolley system diverging north, south, east and west, 
giving connection with New York, Philadelphia, and neighboring 
cities and towns. 

The New Brunswick of the present day is preeminently one of the 
enterprising and progressive cities of the State. The markets of 
the world are open to her commercial interests and manufacturing 
industries, located as she is in direct communication and connection 
with the two populous seaports of the eastern portion of the Nation. 
The traveler from the East, reclining in his comfortable seat in a 
I'ullman of today, as he approaches the east bank of the Raritan 
river, sees spread before him the smoke rising towards the heavens 
from the large brick chimneys of her thriving manufactures, and in 
the distance the campus and classic college buildings. In his over- 
head passage, the highways and byways of the city attract his atten- 
tion, glimpses are caught of twirling trolley cars, and a busy class of 
people engaged in the various vocations of life. If he is a student of 
history, he cannot fail to call to his mind the description of Kalm, 



the great Swedish traveler, and the autocratic New Englander, the 
second President of the United States, who in voluminous notes 
more than a century and a half ago recorded their impressions of 
Jsew Brunswick, then in her infancy. 

Mention of New Brunswick is not complete without reference to 
its Rutgers College, famous in the educational annals of the coun- 
try. This institution, originally called Queen's College in honor 
of Queen Charlotte, was founded by royal charter November 10, 
1766, twenty years after the College of New Jersey, now Princeton 
University, had been founded on the one side, and twelve years after 
King's College, now Columbia University, had been founded on the 
other side. The Dutch people, members of the Reformed Church 
from the Netherlands, were not quite willing to devote their zeal 
for learning and their pride of institutions to either existing college. 
The movement for a foundation of their own had begun early in 
the century with the Rev. Theodoras Jacobus Frelinghuysen ; it was 
substantially fostered by his son, the Rev. Theodorus Frelinghuy- 
sen; and it came to accomplishment especially through the efforts 
of the Rev. Jacobus Rut sen Hardenbergh, the Rev. Johannes Leydt, 
and the elder Hendrick Fisher. The college apparently did not 
begin work at once, nor was its location at once determined, nor is 
there extant any copy of the charter of 1766. In 1770, March 20, 
the second charter was granted, differing in only slight degree from 
the first. It was granted by George III. through "William Franklin, 
Governor of the Province of New Jersey. A copy of this charter of 
1770, printed in the very year of its granting, is in possession of the 
college. It is very full and explicit in its provisions. It was so 
wisely and liberally drawn that very few and slight amendments 
have seemed necessary or desirable in the one hundred and fifty 
years since. The occasion of its granting is stated to be a petition 
from the ministers and elders of the Dutch Reformed churches pre- 
sented to William Franklin, Esq., Governor of the Province of New 
Jersey, and expressing the need of the churches for an educated 
ministry and the need of an institution at home to provide the 
appropriate education. The charter therefore grants "that there 
he a College, called Queen's College, erected in our said Province 
of New Jersey, for the education of youth in the learned lan- 
guages, liberal and useful arts and sciences." The words thus ex- 
pressing the original purpose of the College are so broad and far- 



reaching that, unchanged, they cover the ideals and activities of the 
twentieth century college. 

_ In 1781 certain amendments to the charter were ordained by the 
Legislature of New Jersey. For one thing, an oath of allegiance to 
the government of New Jersey was substituted for the original oath 
of allegiance to the crown. For another thing, an original pro- 
vision restricting the number of ordained ministers among the trus- 
tees to one-third of the whole number was repealed. In 1799, by act 
of the Legislature of New Jersey, the act of 1781 was repealed, but 
its provisions in effect were reenacted, together with further amend- 
ment that oath to support the Constitution of the United States be 
required of each trustee on his taking office. In 1825, by act of No- 
vember 30, the charter was amended by the substitution of the name 
"Rutgers College" for "Queen's College," and the corporate title 
was ordained to be "The Trustees of Eutgers College in New Jer- 
sey." In 1859 the charter received, by act of the Legislature, a 
further amendment, providing a more liberal property-holding right 
than that originally conferred. More recent general laws of the 
State have made such right entirely unlimited. In 1920 an amend- 
ment was adopted removing from the charter any aspect of it which 
might be regarded as sectarian. 

The motto of the College is not contained in the charter. It was 
adopted at a very early time, however, having been suggested, no 
doubt, by the Rev. John H. Livingston, who returned from the Uni- 
versity of Utrecht in 1770 and became at once a leader in church 
and college affairs. "Sol Justitiae Illustra Nos" is the motto of 
the University of Utrecht. The motto of Rutgers (Queen's) Col- 
lege was made " Sul Justitiae et Occident em Illustra." 

The settlement of Perth Amboy, its location, the planning of its 
institutions and its thoroughfares, were in no way a matter of acci- 
dent. Wise heads in Scotland and England planned the new home 
for their settlers, and figured that they were founding a city which 
was to rival London as a commercial port and as one of the great 
cities of the world. Men and women were sent here of the sturdy 
Scotch stock; the infant Amboy was given the impetus of official 
approval, and funds were not lacking for all necessities; but for 
two centuries it proved a laggard, and only within the last three 
decades has Perth Amboy given any intimation that the hopes of 



those who thought and planned for a great city may ever be realiz- 
ed. In early writings reference to the country at the mouth of the 
Raritan river is found, and more than thirty years before the first 
shipload of settlers crossed the Atlantic for the new home in Amer- 
ica, the region was chartered and an estimate of its advantages and 
its resources sent back to London for the edification of the royal 
owners of the land and their retainers. 

What is now the land within the corporate limits of Perth Amboy 
was set aside as the particular property of the Lords Proprietors as 
early as 1669, so reserved in the charter granted to Woodbridge in 
that year. The reservation of this tract of land, accessible from tide 
water, high and dry, without an equal anywhere in the entire State, 
is credited to the foresight and judgment of Governor Carteret. Its 
position, as early historians have pointed out, presented facilities 
for almost every pursuit that an enterprising people might adopt; 
and the failure to make it a place of more extensive trade than it 
has yet become, takes nothing from the credit due the first Governor 
for selecting so eligible a situation for a town. 

Little was accomplished for the next decade towards the settle- 
ment of the point. Samuel Groom, who accompanied Governor 
Rudyard, who succeeded Carteret, to the province in his official 
capacity of surveyor-general, surveyed the harbor and sounded the 
channel from Amboy, as it now began to be called, to Sandy Hook. 
In his report made August 11, 1683, the surveyor-general says that 
there were three houses at the Point, and three others were ready to 
be set up. They were thirty feet long, sixten or eighteen feet wide, 
ton feet between joints, with a double chimney made of lumber and 
clay. Groom laid out the town into one hundred and fifty lots, and 
under instructions of the proprietors allowed for wide streets, also 
each house lot to have yard and garden. 

The arrival of Gawen Lawrie to supersede Rudyard as deputy- 
governor gave a new impetus to affairs at Amboy. He, following 
the instructions of the proprietors, gave the name of Perth to their 
new town in honor of James, Earl of Perth, one of their associates, 
and the title of Amboy was dropped for some time except when 
applied to the Point. In the governor's report, he states that he has 
finally settled on a place where a ship of three hundred tons can ride 
safely at anchor and be connected at low tide by plank with the shore ; 
that he had laid out sixty lots of an acre each on the river and forty 



backward between these and the river, the backward lots being on a 
highway one hundred feet broad, including a place for a market, 
with cross streets from the river to the market. The governor also 
laid out four hundred acres divided into forty-eight parts ; sixteen 
of these were taken up by the Scottish proprietors, eight by pro- 
prietors residing in the province, twenty were taken by other people, 
while four acres were to lie until the proprietors agreed to divide it, 
as people came over; the highways and wharfs were one hundred 
feet broad, and a row of trees along the river was left for shade. 
The purchasers of the town lots were to pay £20, and agreed to build 
a house therein thirty feet long, eighteen feet broad, and eighteen 
feet high, to be finished within a year. Between forty and fifty acres 
were reserved for the governor's house, as the proprietors had de- 
termined to make Perth the capital of the province. 

The quantity of land laid out, including the governor's house and 
public highways, was estimated at two hundred acres ; about the 
same number of acres three miles up the Earitan river was retained 
in common to furnish grass for the settlers. It is to be regretted 
that these plans were not fully carried out ; they had to yield to the 
sordid consideration of the value of the land, and were ignored to 
facilitate the commercial operations of the new provincial capital. 
Under strong pressure of the proprietors, the deputy-governor in 
1684 carried their wishes into effect and the seat of government was 
moved from Elizabethtown. Necessary steps were taken to procure 
the rights and privileges of a port of entry to advance the prosper- 
ity of the new town of Perth, and facilitate its commercial inter- 
course with the other provinces and the mother country. 

The actual residence in Amboy of the chief officers of the province 
is uncertain; Eudyard and Lawrie, while they held lands in the 
town, never gained a permanent residence. Hamilton and Campbell 
may have been permanently established, the former prior to 1689 
and again from 1692 to 1698; the latter probably during his brief 
term. After the surrender of the government of the province to the 
Crown in 1701, while New York participated in the honor flowing 
from the joint possession of a governor, Eichard Ingoldsby was 
lieutenant-governor under Lords Cornbury and Lovelace, there is 
no trace of a residence in Ajnboy of him or any of the presidents of 
the council who succeeded him down to 1736. Governor Hunter was 
the first of the royal governors who regarded the province with 


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sufficient, favor to secure upon its soil anything like a permanent 
home. His house was located on a knoll south of St. Peter's Church, 
commanding a fine view of the harbor, the bay and ocean beyond. 
This was his official residence while on his tours of duty in New 
Jersey, here he retired for recreation from the weighty cares of the 
administration of affairs of the province of New York. His succes- 
sor, Governor Burnet, purchased the Hunter residence, which he 
occupied during his term of eight years. There is no evidence that 
Governors Montgomerie and Cosby ever had a fixed residence in 
Amboy. The next governor, John Hamilton, built what afterwards 
became known as the "Lewis Place," overlooking the broad bay 
formed by the junction of the Raritan and the Sound with Sandy 
Hook inlet. His successor, Lewis Morris, resided most of his time 
near Trenton; his successor, Jonathan Belcher, was more pleased 
with the attractions of Elizabethtown as a home during the ten 
years of his holding the office of governor. Governor Bernard resid- 
ed in what was known as the Johnstone Mansion, which stood half- 
way between the "Long Ferry" and "Sandy Point." During the 
short period of the administration of affairs by Governors Boone 
and Hardy, there is no evidence to the contrary of their being per- 
manent residents of Perth Amboy. The last of the royal governors, 
"William Franklin, became the occupant of the Proprietors' House 
in October, 1774; it was afterwards enlarged and improved and 
became the residence of Matthias Bruen. It was in this mansion 
that Governor Franklin was arrested June 17, 1776, by a detachment 
of militia under Colonel (afterwards General) Heard, by order of 
the Provincial Convention or Congress. 

So slowly were the hopes of the owners of the land realized, that 
it was not until the census of 1840, a century and a half later after 
the original settlement, that the population reached 1,000, the fig- 
ures at the end of that decade being 1,303. An even half dozen of the 
royal governors, whose line began with Carteret and ended with the 
gifted Franklin, made Perth Amboy their home during at least a 
part of their terms. The first was Robert Hunter, prominent as a 
soldier and as a writer, besides being of high rank as a statesman. 
William Burnet, polished and accomplished son of the great bishop 
of that name, honored the people whom he governed by living among 
them for a time. Then came John Hamilton, Francis Bernard and 
Thomas Boone, the latter followed by Franklin, who, like most of 




those who came to the Jerseys at all, lived part of the time in Bur- 

As a city, Perth Amboy came into corporate existence in the year 
1718, when, under date of August 24th a royal charter was granted 
upon the recommendation of Governor Hunter. The seal adopted 
was that in use at the present time, and on which the name of Perth 
Amboy is used. Perth was taken as a compliment to the Earl of 
Perth, who was one of the original owners of the land by royal 
grant. The attempt was apparently made to call the settlement by 
that name alone, but the designation "Ambo" or ''Amboy Point" 
had become so fixed by constant usage that Perth Amboy was easily 
agreed upon as the title to be used in the charter. The right to 
select the mayor was reserved to the royal governor, and it was not 
until all the prerogatives of the crown were abrogated that the peo- 
ple of the city were allowed to select by ballot their chief magis- 
trate. The governor also named the sheriff and the water bailiff. 
The recorder and the clerk were also designated by the governor, 
but the people were allowed to choose the aldermen, assistant alder- 
men, chamberlain, coroner, overseers of the poor and constables, but 
none was allowed to vote except he be a freeholder. The device on 
the city seal is thus described: "On the dexter a hunting horn, and 
over it Arte non impetu; on the sinister a ship riding at anchor 
in the harbor, under it Portus Optimus." The connection between 
the hunting horn and its motto and the past history or future des- 
tinies of the city might afford matter for discussion for a whole 
college of heraldry, were not the clue presented in Governor Hunt- 
er's own escutcheon. The petitioners for the charter for the city 
missed no chance to win the favor of His Excellency, and placed 
upon the seal of the corporation the arms of the governor's family. 

The careless handling of public affairs, which is a curse of Ameri- 
can municipalities, manifested itself throughout the history of Perth 
Amboy. Documents pertaining to the establishment of the city and 
its institutions are wholly in private hands, if they remain at all. 
A comparatively few are preserved in the New Jersey Historical 
Society's vaults in Newark, but even in recent years important 
papers that should never have been outside the City Hall of Perth 
Amboy have turned up at auctions and in book stores in various 
parts of the country even now, to become the property of private 
collectors, rather than of the municipality to which they belong by a 



right and title which cannot be set aside. There are practically no 
records of the city before 1880, and many since that date are incom- 
plete. This is deeply regretted by every student of local history. 
Were it not for the records of the State none too faithfully kept as 
to detail, and the writings of William Dunlap and later of White- 
head, scarcely anything would be known of the first century and a 
half of Perth Amboy. Both of these writers gave us reminiscent 
sketches rather than detailed or consecutive historical record, but 
those interested in the subject are deeply grateful for the morsels 
that have been transmitted to this generation by these two gifted 

In the pre-Revolutionary days, the question of travelling facilities 
was an important matter. The proprietaries, ever solicitous for the 
growth of the capital, expressed a wish to Governor Lawrie, in 
July, 1693, that a convenient road should be established between 
Perth town and Burlington. This was done by Lawrie the follow- 
ing year, and in connection with the road he operated a ferry boat 
between Amboy and New York. This line of travel was in opposi- 
tion to the old Dutch road, which crossed the Raritan river at the 
present site of New Brunswick. The latter route was preferred by 
travelers, but as late as 1698 there was no public conveyance for 
the transportation of either goods or passengers on either route. 
The ferry boat which Lawrie established takes precedence in the 
records of all but one established under the proprietary govern- 
ment. In 1669 there was established a ferry at Communipaw for 
the accommodation of the people of Bergen and Communipaw in 
communication with New Amsterdam. The proprietaries in Decem- 
ber, 1700, granted for fifteen years to Arthur Simson a ferry right 
between Amboy and Navesink. These three ferries, with the one 
across the Raritan river granted to John Inian and his wife in 
1697, are all that are mentioned in the proprietary records. The 
Provincial Assembly in 1716 seems to have paid more attention to 
the condition of public roads. An act was passed confirming all 
highways that were six and four rods wide, laid out in pursuance 
of previous laws, and annulling all others. Rates of ferriage were 
established by public ordinance; about this time there were in 
existence a ferry from Amboy to Staten Island, and one known as 
Redford's ferry from Perth to South Amboy. Passengers and pro- 
duce were also transported direct from South Amboy to Staten 



Island. The ferries from Perth Amboy across the Raritan and the 
Sound were granted in 1719 to George Willocks and his wife. In 
1728 Gabriel Stelle received a patent for a ferry from South Amboy 
to Staten Island, touching at Perth Amboy; these ferries continued 
to be of essential service until the introduction of steamboats plying 
between New Brunswick or Amboy to New York. 

The first advertisement of a stage route between Amboy and Bur- 
lington appeared in March, 1732-3, in which Solomon Smith and 
James Moore of Burlington were to keep two stage wagons on the 
route, making trips once a week for the transportation of passen- 
gers and freight. There seems to be no opposition to this line of 
stages until October, 1750, when a new line was established by 
Daniel O'Brien, a resident of Perth Amboy. His stage boat was to 
leave New York every Wednesday for Amboy, where on Friday a 
stage wagon would proceed to Bordentown, where another stage 
boat would convey the passengers to Philadelphia. The success of 
this line led to an opposition in 1751, originating in Philadelphia. xV 
boat left once a week for Burlington, whence a stage conveyed the 
passengers to Amboy Ferry, where a boat commanded by Matthew 
Iseltine received the passengers for New York. This boat is de- 
scribed as having a commodious cabin, fitted up with a tea table and 
other conveniences; they promised to make the journey in twenty- 
four or thirty hours, less time than the competing line ; it, however, 
required the same number of days as O'Brien's line. In June, 1753, 
Abraham Webb made his appearance with a boat "exceedingly well 
fitted with a handsome cabin and all necessary accommodations." 
He probably took the place of O'Brien on the line; for the next 
year the latter had two boats leaving New York for Amboy on Mon- 
days and Thursdays, unconnected with any special through routes, 
as he offered to forward merchandise via Burlington or Borden- 
town as parties might choose, both lines meeting at Amboy. John 
Butler in November, 1756, instituted a New York stage via Perth 
Amboy and Trenton, to make the journey in three days to Philadel- 
phia, xne establishment of rival stage routes from New York by 
the way of New Brunswick to Philadelphia in 1765-66 put an end to 
the traveling by way of Amboy; the packets, however, continued to 
run for the transportation of way passengers and merchandise, but 
less numerous until about 1775, when there was but one sailing be- 
tween Amboy and New York, under Captain John Thompson. 



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Old as Perth Amboy is, and prominent as it was in the early his- 
tory of the province of East Jersey, there is little to-day to remind 
us of the early days of the infant city. Writing nearly three-quar- 
ters of a century ago, William A. Whitehead, preeminently the his- 
torian of Perth Amboy, said that Perth Amboy had then no crumb- 
ling castles, no time-worn battlemcnted walls, nor monuments of 
fallen greatness, such as excite the veneration and sympathies of 
the traveler among the dilapidated cities of the Eastern hemisphere. 
Since Whitehead's day, the old British barracks, erected midway in 
the eighteenth century, have been removed; the ground is now the 
site of the grammar school, a magnificent monument to the efforts of 
Perth Amboy to educate the children who came to bless the homes 
of her citizens, to many of whom the public school is a wonderful 
agency for the Americanization of those of foreign birth or par- 
entage. At the same time there is a growing number who regret 
that the barracks were not reserved and the grammar school erected 
elsewhere. Until the destruction of the old buildings, the walls of 
which were constructed of brick brought from England, the old rifle- 
pit remained almost as it was when first dug — in summer a pond in 
which tiny ships were sailed and miniature navies fought their bat- 
tles; and in winter a safe place for those who sought, the pleasures 
of iceskating. 

The old mansion built as the home of the colonial governor of 
the Jerseys when one capital was maintained in Amboy and the 
other in Burlington, stands on Kearny avenue. William Franklin, 
son of the great philosopher and statesman, was the last royal 
governor of the colony to ccupy the mansion. Shortly after the 
Revolution, the property, comprising a magnificent estate, passed 
into private hands. Later a destructive fire visited it, but the build- 
ing was restored and until the Civil War wrecked southern fortunes, 
it was a favorite summer resort for prominent families from the 
south of the Mason and Dixon line. It was then known as the 
Brighton House, with checkered career as a public house of enter- 
tainment. After the war was ended, Matthias Bruen presented the 
entire property to the Presbyterian church to be maintained as a 
home for infirm clergy, their wives, widows and orphans. Thus it 
continued for more than a score of years, when the church decided 
that it could not afford to longer keep it, and returned it to the 
Bruen family, and it is now in use as an apartment house, occupied 




by school teachers, lawyers, and other professional people. Main- 
people who otherwise know nothing of Perth Amboy 's history are fa- 
miliar with the Parker Castle, so-called because of the older part of 
it, built with heavy stone walls in the time when Indians were numer- 
ous in these parts and the peaceful citizen sought to protect his 
sleep at night and his family by day. The frame of the old castle, 
which sheltered generation after generation of the Parker family 
for nearly two centuries, was old when the colonies fought the 
mother country, although erected long after the stone portion had 
been in use. The building extends from Water street to Front, and 
years ago the half block bounded by Water street and Willocks lane 
was Mrs. Parker's garden. 

On the corner of Smith and Water streets is the old Parker 
law office, originally a one-story frame structure which now is two 
stories high because the Smith street grade was lowered at that 
point about ten feet. There before the Revolution the Parkers gave 
legal advice to their townsmen, and were consulted by men of promi- 
nence through New Jersey and New York who were glad to have the 
benefit of their knowledge and advice. There, at the outbreak of the 
Revolution, Cortlandt Skinner, the royal attorney general, had his 
office. Two of his students at the time were Andrew Bell and 
Joseph Bloomfield. Skinner and Bell remained loyal to the British 
Crown, the former becoming a major-general in his Majesty's 
forces, and Bell serving throughout the conflict as private secretary 
to Sir Henry Clinton. Bloomfield led American troops as a major- 
general, and later was twice governor of New Jersey, besides serv- 
ing the State well as attorney-general. Bell's old mansion still 
stands on Kearny avenue, occupied by Miss Emily Paterson, a great- 
granddaughter of William Paterson, one of the infant State's first 
two United States Senators, and who graced the Federal Supreme 

There is not much left of the original building in which the Pro- 
vincial Assembly met immediately after the settlement of Ambo 
Point. It was the capital of East Jersey, and then passed through 
various degrees of usefulness to the public or semi-public nature 
for several decades. It was built and rebuilt and enlarged in var 

e _ 

ious directions until for some years it has served as city hall and 
police headquarters. For many years the upper floor was a lodge 
room, and the only approach to a place of theatrical entertainment 


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of which the city could boast for many years was the room on the 
second floor now used for the sessions of the city council and the 
district court. 

Several buildings used privately, survived from early colonial 
days. The home of the East Jersey Club on High street was ono 
of the first built in the city. It was saved from demolition by Dr. 
Francis W. Kitchel, and occupied by him for more than a quarter 
of a century. On some old maps of the city it is shown as the resi- 
dence of Neil Campbell, one of the most prominent immigrants from 
Scotland to the infant metropolis. John "Watson, the first portrait 
painter in the American colonies, came from Scotland in 1715 and 
lived here until his death. 

The real industrial life of Perth Amboy began with the decision of 
the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company to make the city its tidewater 
terminus. Coal wharves were erected, and in 1876 the shipment of 
anthracite coal to eastern and foreign ports was commenced. After 
a few years the shipments of coal aggregated more than two mil- 
lion tons annually, and for a long time the total amount handled has 
been in excess of that total. The coming and going of coal car- 
riers brought other industries to the awakened city. A shipbuilder, 
Hugh Ramsay, came here and built barges for the railroad company 
and then for other concerns, private parties and foreign govern- 
ments. Dry docks were brought here, others were constructed, and 
for thirty years Perth Amboy has been a center of much activity in 
this important line of industry. 

Then came the tremendous Guggenheim interests and established 
the gold, silver, copper and lead plant of the American Smelting 
Company, with the United Lead Company, which closed twenty-six 
refineries when it opened its Perth Amboy plant. The Lewisohn 
Brothers established the Raritan Copper Works, which almost at 
once became the largest electrolytic copper refinery in the world. 
The Barber Asphalt Paving Company erected huge refineries and 
subsidiary plants, refining all the asphalt it uses east of the Miss- 
issippi here, and turning out thousands of rolls of roofing paper 
annually. The United States Cartridge Company naturally follow- 
ed the United Lead Company, and the Cheesebrough Manufactur- 
ing Company secured a site on the Raritan river, within the limits 
of the city, where the vaseline preparations used by the world are 



produced. Attracted by the transportation facilities and the large 
production of copper in Perth Amboy, came the Standard Under- 
ground Cable Company, with its parent plant at Pittsburgh and a 
branch at Oakland, California, to manufacture tens of thousands of 
miles of wire of all sorts, and employ hundreds of men and women 
in its various departments. 

More than thirty years ago the Roessler-Hasslacher Chemical 
Company came to America and erected a small plant in Perth Am- 
boy, in which a variety of chemicals were produced by methods in 
use in Germany. To-day the company operates three large plants 
which turn out coloring materials, cyanides and other equally impor- 
tant chemical commodities, to supply the American market, in addi- 
tion to fathering the General Bakelite Company, which has its large 
and important plant here. 

From the beginning, clay products have played a large part in the 
industrial development of Perth Amboy. Beds of clay in and about 
the city produce that quality of Mother Earth best adapted for fine 
brick, conduits, building blocks of all sorts and for all uses, and 
terra cotta. The terra cotta products of Perth Amboy adorn the 
buildings of this and other lands erected when that was a popular 
form of architectural ornamentation. To-day the skyscrapers of 
the great cities of America are being constructed of blocks and tile 
made in and about Perth Amboy. Calvin Pardee, of the prominent 
Pennsylvania family of that name so long identified with the mining 
and shipment of coal, established a tile manufactory, and later a 
steel rod mill, both of which are now in other hands. 




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Ohio U.v*.vt,Rsrri', at Athens. 

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The Ohio University 

By Charles W. Super, A. M., LL.D., Athens, Ohio 

P^HE HISTORIAN of institutions or of movements, wheth- 
er they be political, religious or social, is almost cer- 
tain to mislead his readers if he does not take into con- 
sideration preceding and contemporary conditions. We 
are so prone to project the present into the past, to see with our eyes 
instead of with the constructive imagination, that unless we are 
constantly on our guard we will misunderstand and misinterpret the 
days gone by. 

The history of the Ohio University, the earliest venture into the 
domain of higher education in the Northwest Territory, is an in- 
structive example of what has just been written. When viewed in 
the light of present conditions, we are prompted to believe that 
the project was launched either by a company of schoolboys who had 
a totally inadequate conception of what they were doing, or by 
men whose enthusiasm far outran their judgment. But when con- 
templated in the light of the closing years of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, it was altogether rational and wisely conceived. It was one 
of the first land-grant colleges, if not the first, and if its property 
had been administered as its founders intended it should be, it 
would have enjoyed a proportionately far larger income than accru- 
ed from the Morrill Bill, which was enacted more than half a cen- 
tury later. 

The intellectual and moral forces that led to the founding of a 
college in a territory in which there were as yet no white settlers, 
were generated and gradually developed in New England, more 
particularly in Massachustts and Connecticut. The specific form in 

Note. — It is unnecessary that I should furnish my readers with a list of the sources 
of the information embodied in this article. But special acknowledgment is due to 
W. E. Peters, Esq., of Athens, Ohio, whose "Legal History of the Ohio University" 
has been my guide in all matters coming under the title. I wish also to express my 
obligations to C. L. Martzloff, Litt.D., at present a member of the college faculty. It 
is doubtful if any man of his age is more familiar with the history of his native 
State than Professor Martzloff. For the contents of the article I alone am responsible. 
Por evident reason the terms "college" and "university" have been used as synonyms. 

c. w. s. 


which the enterprise took shape was mainly due to one man, who 
was a graduate of Yale College. On the other hand, the original 
conception seems to have had its origin in the mind of a man who 
had no systematic education. As Yale was the spiritual father of 
the western institution, let us consider for a moment its origin and 
the sort of education it provided in the time when Dr. Cutler was a 
young man. It seems to have had no legal name until 1745, and no 
fixed abode until 1716, although it began the work of teaching in a 
small way about ten years earlier. In 1718 Elihu Yale contributed 
money and property of the value of about £200 to the infant enter- 
prise, and the trustees gave the name "Yale" to the building they 
were then erecting in New Haven. The appellation seems to have 
been an afterthought. It was, however, gradually applied to the 
college itself, but the charter dates only from 1745. The Yale build- 
ing was one hundred and seventy feet long, of proportionate width, 
and three stories high, with an attic. It was used as a chapel, din- 
ing-room, library and residence hall. It was the custom of college 
authorities to provide rooms for students until after the middle of 
the eighteenth century, and has not even yet been entirely abro- 
gated. No inconsiderable income was derived from this source. 
For three decades the Y T ale building seems to have served well its 
purposes and to have been sufficiently commodious. By the end of 
this period it had become a good deal dilapidated and was torn 
down. As young Cutler was an undergraduate during this period, 
we have a fair idea of his student life and a record of the studies he 
pursued. I do not find any mention of the number of his fellow- 
students, but seventy-five is probably above rather than below the 
actual figure. 

Connecticut was at that time much more sparsely settled than 
Massachusetts, and it was a rare thing for a student to go far from 
home to attend school. The difficulties of travel had much to do 
with the founding of colleges in those days. Barely has a man 
reaped so much glory from so small an investment as Elihu Yale. 
He does not seem to have been a resident of New England at any 
time, in the strict sense of the term, nor does Jeremiah Dummer, 
a native of Boston and a graduate of Harvard, who was mainly 
instrumental in securing the donation from Yale. It was small com- 
pared with his wealth. The Collegiate School, the predecessor of 
Yale College, seems to have sojourned temporarily at no less than 



^ix different' places and at two different towns at the same time 
during a short period. The War of the Revolution was a disturbing 
factor more than once. Latin was prescribed as the principal me- 
dium of conversation, but we are not told how regularly the prescrip- 
tion was taken. This was the custom in the German gymnasia, 
ami, in the memory of men still living, some of the lectures at the 
universities were delivered in Latin. It does not appear that Latin 
was ever used as a medium of instruction in this country. A story 
is told of Dr. Nisbet, the first president of Dickinson College, who 
was called to his post from Scotland in 1783, that on one occasion 
a student in conversation with him quoted a passage from the 
.l*ncid. "Go on, young man," said he, "what you have left is as 
frood as what you have taken." 

President Thwing, in his "History of Education in America," 
furnishes some interesting data regarding the subjects studied at 
Vale in the eighteenth century. In 1733 Euclid became the text- 
hook in geometry. In 1742 elementary mathematics was placed at 
the beginning instead of at the end of the course where it had hith- 
erto been. In 1763, two years before Manasseh Cutler received 
his degree, algebra was first introduced. In 1777 the freshmen 
studied arithmetic; the sophomores algebra and geometry; the 
juniors trigonometry. In 1734, thirty even pounds were collected 
and invested in the purchase of apparatus. Dr. Wheelock was the 
first president of Dartmouth after its removal from Lebanon; he 
had one assistant. The college was a concrete expression of the 
sympathy for the Indians which was a characteristic of New Eng- 
land philanthropy for more than a century after the first settlement 
f'f the region. Although the Indian portion of the project never 
amounted to anything, it was not entirely abandoned until 1849. The 
tndeavor to educate the Eed Man in a "college" is instructive as 
showing the significance of the term in those days. 

When Williams College began operations in 1793, it had a build- 
ing, a few books, and funds amounting to $8,800. There was but 
'•ne chair for the two ancient languages until 1853. The number 
of students to the close of the eighteenth century does not seem to 
nave much exceeded twenty-five. It was hardly more than an 
offshoot of Yale. It was in this college that William Cullen Bryant, 
w ho was born in the year of its establishment, spent a few terms 
after he was sixteen. 



When Timothy Dwight became president of Yale in 1795, the 
faculty consisted of one professor and three tutors. There was no 
chair of any language until 1805, when Professor Kingsley was 
given charge of Hebrew, Greek and Latin. At about the same time, 
Harvard had but one professor in the collegiate department, and he 
gave instruction in mathematics and natural philosophy (physics). 
There was no professor of Latin or of Greek until 1811. Under the 
conditions then prevailing, it need not surprise us to read that 
Aaron Burr was graduated at Princeton when he was sixteen years 
old, which was just the age of the college at the time. Young Burr 
had led a wild life, and was what would now be considered a rather 
"poor" student. The following story current a few years ago is not 
apocryphal in spirit, if it is not quite true to the letter. A man 
was riding in a train engaged with a book. Another entered the 
car and took a seat beside him. In the course of the conversation 
that followed, the man with the book remarked to his companion 
that he had just been elected to the professorship of Greek in a cer- 
tain college, and that he was on his way to enter upon his duties, 
but having little knowledge of the subject he was to teach, he was 
"studying up." 

Having thus taken a glance over the educational background of 
the Ohio University, it will be in order to consider briefly the lure 
that drew a large number of families from the settled regions east 
of the Hudson to the wilds that began on the western and northern 
banks of the Ohio. There were two main attractions. One was the 
fertility of the soil compared with the greater portion of New Eng- 
land. The other was the Ordinance of 1787. This document, which 
has been much praised, often over-praised, was in some respects in 
advance of the time, as there was at that date no constitution of the 
United States, because there was no United States ; in others, it was 
not only conservative, it was even reactionary. Like many other 
ordinances, laws and decrees, it was easier to put on paper than to 
put in practice. We need to consider here only a few of its most 
important points. "Religion, morality and knowledge being neces- 
sary to good government, schools and the means of education shall 
forever be encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be ob- 
served towards the Indians, their lands and property shall never be 
taken from them without their consent; and their property, rights 
and liberty shall never be invaded or disturbed unless in just and 


Reproduced from an old engraving 


lawful wars authorized by congress. * * * There shall be 
neither slavery nor involuntary servitude otherwise than in the 
punishment of crimes whereof the parties shall have been duly 
convicted. ' ' 

On the other hand, the Ordinance recognized property not only 
as a qualification for holding office, but even for voting. It provided 
that the governor of the Territory must be the owner of one thous- 
and acres of land, while other officials must own from five hundred to 
two hundred acres. The possessor of less than fifty acres was dis- 
franchised. Although the document prohibited slavery, or rather 
forbade it, the prohibition was for many years a dead letter. No 
part of the Territory was free soil, although Ohio came nearest to 
fulfilling this condition. From East Liverpool to Cairo there was 
only the Ohio river between prospective freedom and actual slavery. 
Many of those who crossed it took with them their human property 
along with their other goods and chattels. There was no one to say 
them nay. A few slaves were in the Territory as late as 1847. A 
recent writer declares that even in Ohio, during the first twenty-five 
years of its statehood, a colored man had no more show for actual 
freedom and equality before the law than a rabbit. The promise 
was far in advance of the performance. 

The constitution of the State does not give the negro the ballot. 
As recently as 1912, when an amendment was voted on striking the 
word "white" from the franchise clause, it was overwhelmingly 
defeated. The absurdity of this action is almost incredible, since the 
colored man who wishes to vote can do so under the Fourteenth 
Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. 

It is also worthy of at least passing mention that Ohio, although 
the first portion of the new Territory to be settled, was not the first 
to be occupied. A hundred years before the Ordinance was passed, 
the French laid claim to a portion thereof, LaSalle being the chief 
explorer. Neither was the Ordinance the first official document 
granting complete religious liberty in the United States. In this 
matter it was preceded by New York, by Pennsylvania and perhaps 
by one or more of the other colonies. There seems to be no doubt 
that with the admission of Ohio as a State, a definite policy for 
aiding education by the government was entered upon. When Indi- 
ana, Mississippi, Illinois and Alabama were admitted into the 
Union, bargains and grants similar to that existing with Ohio were 



made and given. The grants were however not all of exactly the 
same type. The total was about eighty million acres, which, at the 
original valuation of one dollar and twenty-five cents an acre, would 
have yielded one hundred million dollars. Unfortunately some of 
the grants, in fact the greater part thereof, were grossly misman- 
aged, sometimes ignorantly, sometimes dishonestly, if not fraudu- 

By the compact entered into by Samuel Osgood, Manasseh Cut- 
ler, Arthur Lee and Winthrop Sargent on behalf of the Ohio Com- 
pany on the one hand and the Board of Treasury on the other, there 
being at that time no Federal Executive, it was stipulated that two 
townships of land should be given or set apart in perpetuity for the 
purposes of an university. This transaction bears date October 
27, 1787. We are not here further concerned with it except to note 
that the lands were to be appraised at about one dollar and seventy- 
five cents an acre, and reappraised about three times in a century. 
It would seem from such evidence as is obtainable at this date that 
they were taken up with considerable rapidity, and that the two 
townships were virtually under lease by the year 1820. 

As the period of the first reappraisement approached, the trustees 
of the college, at the suggestion of President McGuffey, incurred 
debts to an amount mentioned elsewhere in this article, not doubting 
that such reappraisement could and would be made. That this con- 
fidence was well grounded was proved by a committee of the General 
Assembly and by several decisions of the courts. But alas! "the 
best laid schemes of mice and men gang aft agley." The hostility 
of the lessees is incomprehensible to the present generation. So 
unpopular had President McGuffey made himself by his efforts in 
behalf of the college, that he was subjected to personal violence, 
although not of a serious character, and even hanged in effigy. This 
hostility manifested itself in various ways until near the close of 
the century. The law which may be said to have asphyxiated the 
institution for a number of years, was passed on the tenth day of 
March, 1843, and reads as follows. "Be it enacted by the General 
Assembly of the State of Ohio, that the true intent and meaning of 
the first section of the act entitled 'an act establishing a university 
in the town of Athens,' passed February twenty-first, eighteen 
hundred and five, that the leases granted and by virtue of said act, 
and the one to which that was an amendment, should not be subject 


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to a revaluation at any time thereafter, as was provided for in 
the act to which that was an amendment." The peculiarity of this 
act, and one that is rare if not unique in the annals of legislation, 
is that it is a virtual usurpation by the legislature of a function that 
belongs exclusively to the judiciary. Notwithstanding this crush- 
ing blow, the college authorities did not give up the struggle. Year 
after year a representative of the trustees appeared before the 
legislature appealing for relief from the injustice that had beer; 
clone by the law of 1843. At length, in 1861, "the standing commit- 
tee on Universities, Colleges and Academies to whom was referred 
Ihe memorial of the Trustees of the Ohio University for relief from 
the effects of the act of 1843," submitted a lengthy report summing 
up the results of their investigation, together with the memorial of 
the trustees, and expressing the hope that the "next General Assem- 
bly may give the whole subject a fuller examination than can now be 
given it." This report is signed by the committee, of which James 
A. Garfield, afterwards President of the United States, was the 
chairman. But the Civil War coming on, the case was not again 
taken up in this form. 

During four successive years beginning with 1867, the State 
Legislature appropriated in all about $15,000 "for tuition of 
soldiers in the State Universities at Athens and Oxford." These 
sums, though small, had a stimulating effect on the attendance for 
several years. On the 30th day of March, 1875, the legislature pass- 
ed the following act: "That the trustees of any institution of learn- 
ing holding leasehold lands and having authority under the laws of 
the State to demand a yearly rent on such lands, and the tenements 
erected thereon, not exceeding the amount of tax on property of like 
description by the State, said rent being in addition to a yearly rent 
at six per centum on the appraised value of said lands and tene- 
ments, are hereby required to demand and collect said rents for 
the support of said institution." This bill as written could refer 
only to the Ohio University; but as the constitution of the State 
prohibits all special legislation, it was drawn up in such a form as 
to make it of general application. It is an interesting specimen 
of legislative legerdemain. By the passage of the act of 1843, the 
lessees of the college lands were not only exempted from a reap- 
praisement of the real estate: they had paid no State tax until the 
enactment of the law just cited. The amount of this tax was never 



large, being even at the present time somewhat less than $2,500 
annually, and this sum is distributed among the inhabitants of two 
townships, each six miles square, including the city of Athens. Tho 
passage of the act was however vigorously opposed and then resist- 
ed, the lessees forthwith taking their grievance into the courts. One 
decision after another was, however, against them. After about 
five years of litigation ending in the Supreme Court of the United 
States, the case was finally decided in favor of the University. This 
decision was clearly in accordance with the terms of the original 
grant. The lessees, however, had some grounds for their claim 
to exemption. A number of men testified under oath that they had 
been repeatedly assured by persons interested in the leasing of the 
college lands that the lessees were forever exempt from the payment 
of this addition to the rent on the original leases. On the other 
hand, it would seem to be a self-evident proposition that the exemp- 
tion from the payment of a State tax was made, not in the interest 
of the payer, but of the payee. Besides, entirely apart from the 
merits of the case, the presence of a college in a community or its 
proximity thereto is always a paying proposition, if it is nothing 

As the entire income of the college under the terms of the original- 

appraisement was only about forty-five hundred dollars, we see 
what ideas a majority of the legislators had as to the amount of 
money required to carry on an institution of higher learning. The 
rent, equal to the State tax which, under the terms of the decision 
just mentioned the lessees were compelled to pay, increased this 
amount about fifty per cent., as we have just seen. The land values 
of the two townships including the railroad beds for the year 1919 
was nearly $2,000,000. Although this sum at six per cent, would 
yield a much larger income than Dr. Cutler believed to be necessary 
for the maintenance of a college, it is not only small compared with 
the actual budget, but with the needs, real or imaginary, of a uni- 
versity. According to the treasurer's report for the year ending 
June 30, 1920, the total expenditures of the Ohio University were 
in excess of $330,000. This sum, moreover, does not include the 
money spent by the students on private account, which was probably 
not much, if any, less. It would seem that a person of even limited 
intelligence, or in fact of no intelligence at all, could see, without 
any special effort, on which side of the proposition the financial bal- 



ance would lie. At present the number of college buildings inside 
and outside of the campus is about twenty. The average attendance 
of students has for some years past exceeded a thousand. 

In 1881 the University experienced another slight check. In 
March of said year the General Assembly passed an act appropriat- 
ing $20,000 for the purpose of repairing its buildings. Forthwith 
certain members of the Senate who had vigorously opposed this 
grant obtained an injunction on the State Treasurer to stop him 
from paying the money to the treasurer of the University. After 
a short delay the injunction was dissolved and a peremptory writ 
in favor of the trustees ordered. This appropriation was later 
increased by $10,000. 

In the year 1883, another crisis in the affairs of the college may 
be said to have arisen when President Scott was called to the head 
of the State University at Columbus. The trustees held several 
meetings and corresponded with two or more prospective candidates 
for the vacancy. All declined on account of the uncertainty of the 
future. During this interregnum a bill was introduced into the leg- 
islature with a view to uniting the three State universities under one 
board of trustees, and naming it the University of Ohio. But the 
centralizing tendency which it seemed to encourage met with so 
much opposition that the project was never pushed. 

Up to the spring of 1885 the legislature had made no appropria- 
tion to the Ohio University for current expenses. To the surprise 
and gratification of its friends the legislature accepted an amend- 
ment to the general appropriation bill, granting about $5,000 for 
this purpose. Small as the amount was, it prepared the way for 
larger sums in subsequent years. The next year $5,000 were added 
for a "normal department," the first appropriation for such a pur- 
pose in the State. This item was bitterly contested as a useless 
innovation, and kept in the general appropriation bill by a bare 
majority. About twenty years later a general bill for the establish- 
ment of normal schools in Ohio was enacted into a law, and the Ohio 
University was made one of its beneficiaries. 

The rejuvenation of the Ohio University may be said to date from 
the enactment by the General Assembly of what is locally known 
as the Sleeper bill, from the Hon. D. L. Sleeper, the member from 
Athens county and speaker of the House. By a fortunate concaten- 
ation of circumstances the senator from the district to which Athens 



county belonged was also a resident of Athens. The essential part 
of the law which was passed in 1896 is that "there shall be levied 
annually a tax on the grand duplicate of the taxable property of 
Ohio * * * three one-hundredths of a mill upon each dollar of 
valuation of such taxable property. Of the funds thus collected 
seven-twelfths are to be paid to the treasurer of the Ohio University 
and five-twelfths to the treasurer of Miami University." Although 
the sum at first realized by the two institutions was not large, beinc; 
only $57,000, it virtually committed the State legislature to then- 
support. This support has not since been withheld, and has been 
increasingly liberal, as has just been pointed out. 

It is hardly putting the case stronger than the facts warrant, to 
affirm that during almost half of the first century of the existence of 
the Ohio University its trustees were either inside the fort defend- 
ing it against enemy onslaughts, or on the outside trying to collect 
the tribute which they claimed was justly their due. Not only is it a 
truth of wide application that "eternal vigilance is the price of 
liberty," it is equally true that unremitting watchfulness was neces- 
sary, in this case, to prevent the "hostiles" from destroying the 
University entirely, or reducing it to its lowest terms. I heard 
more than one of the leading citizens of Athens declare that the 
college buildings ought to be burned down. Although these men 
would not have applied the torch themselves, they would not have 
been grieved or come to the rescue if some one else had done the 

The college treasurer also received threatening letters written in 
a disguised hand, warning him against attempting to collect the 
additional rent granted by the act of 1876. This rent amounted to 
less than five cents an acre. On the town property it is a mere 
trifle. Unfortunately this dreary record is not unique. It can prob- 
ably be paralleled by the history of many other institutions within 
the bounds of the United States. If, as Virgil declares, it was a vast 
work to found the Roman nation, it has been hardly less vast to 
establish a system of education both higher and lower in many 
of our States, if not in all. 

The governing board of the Ohio University seems to have been 
constituted on a unique plan. It consists of nineteen members ap- 
pointed by the governor for life. He is himself an ex-officio mem- 
ber, and the president of the college is also president of the board 



of trustees. This position makes him the virtual dictator of the 
policy of the institution and the chief agent in its management. 
If wisely used by a competent head, no better plan for the manage- 
ment of an educational institution could be devised. On the other 
hand, if the president be a mere sciolist or a time-server, he is in 
position to do much harm. 

Unfortunately, the center of Athens township did not happen 
to be a suitable location either for a town or for a college campus. 
The terrain somewhat resembles a huge toad sitting with its back 
to the Hockhocking river, and its head to the northeast. There is 
considerable level land on both river banks; but as it is low-lying 
and the stream very crooked, when it overflows its banks it becomes 
almost as wide as the valley. Several times during the life of the 
present generation it has demonstrated that it is no respecter of 
property, and once its indifference to human life. Some of the 
streets are so steep as to be of little value for traffic, while a few 
points are accessible by means of ladders only, or similar device 
for mountain climbing. The town is connected with the surrounding 
country by five bridges, two of which are used by railroads only. 

At the southwest corner the college campus approaches so close 
to the river that there is little more than sufficient space for a street 
and a railroad. The road, the Baltimore & Ohio, was originally 
intended to pass under the town, and a great amount of work was 
done excavating a tunnel and building a long "causeway." Owing 
to some legal difficulty, the track was laid, temporarily, as was sup- 
posed, around the town, or at least around a part thereof, and has 
never been moved. Nominally the campus occupies ten acres, but a 
strip along the north side, having been originally set apart for a 
parade ground, can not be used for buildings. The eastern half is 
vacant; the western half is partly occupied by a soldiers' monu- 
ment. Both halves, are, however, kept in line condition by the col- 
lege authorities. The grounds are one block from the business 
center of the city, but they are far from the geographical center. 
The nine college buildings occupy somewhat more than the southern 
half; the remainder has been planted in trees. Lack of space com- 
pelled the college authorities to erect several of their largest build- 
ings and some of the smaller ones outside of the original ten acres. 
The athletic grounds and the experimental gardens lie outside of the 
corporation, occupying a tract of land between the southwest corner 



of the campus and the property of the Southeastern Ohio Hospital 
for the Insane. The trustees of Miami University at Oxford, which 
is also one of the early land-grant colleges, were either wiser or 
more fortunate. They have a campus covering sixty acres of level 
land, and have therefore sufficient room for expansion probably for 
all time to come. 

The first building on the campus of the Ohio University was 
completed in the spring of 1809. "It was the first building erected 
for exclusively educational purposes west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains." It was of brick, about twenty-four by thirty feet, two stor- 
ies high, with a single room on each floor. After being used for 
school purposes for about thirty years, it was torn down. This 
structure was near the eastern border of the present campus. The 
Center building was begun in 1817 and completed within two years. 
It is fifty by eighty-two feet, and three stories high. The original 
walls and the tower still stand, but the roof has been raised about 
four feet, the windows have been enlarged, and the interior com- 
pletely remodeled. It no longer contains rooms for students. The 
two "Wings," as they are familiarly called, although detached, 
are forty by sixty feet and three stories high. They were completed 
in 1837 and 1839. Within recent years they have also been complete- 
ly remodeled and are used for various purposes. For more than 
half a century they were used almost exlusively as dormitories, for 
which they were erected. At present the college provides no rooms 
for male students. 

When the administration building was erected, officially known as 
Ewing Hall, so named in honor of the Hon. Thomas Ewing, the 
most distinguished graduate of the University, it was intended that 
the West Wing should be torn down. This has not been done. One 
result is that it virtually stands in front of a small portion of the 
new building. This architectural blunder would have been avoided 
if the later structure had been located about twenty feet farther 

When Athens was incorporated in December, 1800, there were 
not more than a half dozen houses, or rather cabins, within the 
town plat. At the same time the population of Cincinnati was about 
750; ten years later it had increased to one thousand souls. Athens 
was the second village incorporated within the bounds of the North- 
west Territory, Marietta having preceded it by about three weeks. 



Until recent years, Athens has been by far the most populous town- 
ship in the county. At present it is "hard run" by York, which 
owes its prosperity to the coal mines within its borders. 

Having thus sketched in outline what may be called the external 
history of the Ohio University, its trials and tribulations, the legis- 
lation and litigation in which it was a participant, I proceed to a 
brief survey of several men who were more or less closely identified 
with it during the first century of its existence. There is little doubt 
that Manasseh Cutler and his fellow-citizen of Connecticut, Nathan 
Dane, a graduate of Harvard, were the principal authors of the 
Ordinance of 1787. The former was without doubt the most versatile 
and the most widely read member of the group with which he co-op- 
erated. He was born in 1742, and graduated from Yale College in 
1765. He was a chaplain in the Revolutionary army, a member of the 
Colonial Legislature, of the National Congress, a practicing physi- 
cian, and a scientist of considerable note. He received the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Divinity from his alma mater in 1789. He was 
also a member of the American Academy of Sciences, of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, and an honorary member of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society. In 1788, after the pilgrims from the East 
had made some progress in their new settlement at the mouth of the 
Muskingum, Dr. Cutler spent a few weeks among them, and to the 
end of his days took a deep interest in their welfare. He died iu 
1820. In a letter to General Eufus Putnam dated June 3, 1800, he 
shows that he had pondered deeply the problem of the prospective 
University. He writes, among other things, that as an American 
Congress had made the grant, no name appeared to him more 
appropriate than "American University; I hope the name will 
not be changed." He had also considered the name "Western Uni- 
versity." Here we see what limited views men in those days had 
of what was connoted by the term "western." A weekly newspaper 
published in Cincinnati is still called the "Western Christian Advo- 
cate," while one issued in Saint Louis is denominated the "Central 
Christian Advocate." Dr. Cutler also devised the plan by which 
he desired the University to be governed. He thinks the institution 
should have not only a president but also a vice-president. He is of 
the opinion that the trustees ought to live near the college, or at 
least on the college lands. His ideas about limiting the income of an 
educational institution are to us almost incredible. "If your As- 



sembly (legislature) would not be likely to make any limit, it might 
be best to say nothing about it. But if they will do it, I am certain 
that forty or fifty thousand dollars can not be too high, as it must be 
applied to one of the most useful and important purposes to gov- 
ernment and to society. The sum sounds large, but no one can say 
to what amount the income of the endowment of this University may 
arrive in the end." 

If a large city had grown up on any part of the college lands, 
Dr. Cutler's most sanguine possibility might have been realized; 
not, however, under present conditions and prospects. Among the 
men who were indirectly identified with the University and the 
town (now the city) of Athens, a few who are not mentioned else- 
where in this article deserve a brief notice. To this list belongs Gen- 
eral Eufus Putnam. He was the founder of Marietta, the first white 
settlement in Ohio. He was born in Massachusetts in 173S. Al- 
though almost entirely self-taught, he distinguished himself in later 
life as a military officer, as a surveyor, as a legislator and as a 
judge. He was the personal leader of the first band of settlers who 
made the journey to the "Far West," although it was far from New 
England only. The company, after a laborious passage across the 
Alleghanies, arrived at Marietta on the seventh of April, 1788. The 
following year General Putnam was appointed a judge of the su- 
preme court of the district. He appears to have had every quali- 
fication of the patriotic citizen, of the far-seeing statesman, and of 
the honest and honorable man. On the outward journey he exer- 
cised the supreme command, and also in the infant colony until the 
arrival of General St. Clair. He was a trustee of the Ohio Univer- 
sity until his death in 1824. 

In his correspondence with Washington appears for the first 
time, so far as is known, the suggestion that Congress, which had at 
its disposal an abundance of land and no money, should provide 
endowments for education. Benjamin Tupper was his right-hand 

Probably the only alumnus of the Ohio University who in later 
life achieved a nation-wide reputation was Thomas Ewing. He was 
born in Virginia, but his father moved to Ohio when the son was 
only a few years old. He earned money with which to support 
himself while at college, by boiling salt in his native State. In the 
early days of Ohio, and indeed of the entire northwest country, the 



making of salt was an important industry. It survived in the vicin- 
ity of Athens until near the close of the last century. Mr. Ewing 
received his degree irregularly in 1815, as the college classes were 
not organized until five years later. From 1831 to 1851 he was 
variously employed in the service of the nation. Thereafter to the 
date of his death he was engaged in the practice of law at Lancaster, 
Ohio. He was related to the well known Sherman family, both Sen- 
ator John Sherman and General William T. Sherman having been 
born in Lancaster. 

Daniel Read, of the class of 1824, was born in Marietta, and died 
in Iowa in 1878. At the time of his death he was believed to be the 
oldest teacher in continuous service in the United States. His last 
position was that of president of the State University of Missouri. 
He seems to have occupied in succession almost every chair in exis- 
tence in his time. 

The Ohio University and the town of Athens for an entire century 
occupied an important place in the leadership of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church. Bishop Ames was born in the township of Athens 
county which still bears his family name. He was for several terms 
a student in the college. He was consecrated bishop in Boston in 
1852. Bishop McCabe was born in Athens, but it does not appear 
that he was at any time connected with the University. Bishops 
Cranston and Moore were both born in Athens, and received their 
baccalaureate degrees from the local institution. Of these four 
ecclesiastical dignitaries, only Bishop Cranston survives, at the age 
of eighty. 

Charles H. Grosvenor was born in Connecticut, but when five 
years old was taken by his parents to Ohio. He entered the Union 
army as a private in 1861, and when mustered out of the service in 
1865 had risen to the rank of brigadier-general. He was a member 
of the General Assembly, and speaker of the House for one term. 
He was an influential member of the National Congress for about 
twenty years. He was a life-long resident of Athens, and was 
chiefly instrumental in securing the Carnegie Library for the Uni- 
versity. Although managed by the college authorities, it is free to 
the citizens of the community. General Grosvernor died in 1917. 

The names of only two colored men appear on the alumni roll 
of the University, previous to the end of the first century. One of 
these, John Newton Templeton, was a clergyman and teacher for 



some time, but nothing is known of his later life nor the place and 
date of his death. The career of J. C. Corbin, who received his bac- 
calaureate degree in 1853, has been altogether creditable. He was 
editor of several different newspapers. For one term he was the 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction in Arkansas, and also 
president of the State Colored Teachers' Association. He is said 
to have been an accomplished linguist and a musician of considerable 
ability. At various times during the last half century a few colored 
students have been in attendance for short periods. 

The name of the first alumna appears in the class of 1873. The 
name of another young woman appears with the class of '76, and the 
names of two in the class of '79, after which date they are common. 

For more than three decades after the opening of the University, 
the authorities do not seem to have issued a catalogue. None can 
at present be found of earlier date than 1843. At that time the 
faculty consisted of five men, William H. McGuffey being the presi- 
dent. There was a professor of Latin and one of Greek. The num- 
ber of students was one hundred and eleven, of whom sixty-two were 
in the collegiate department. In said catalogue we read that "the 
student, at the commencement of the junior year, may elect to con- 
tinue the mathematical course or to commence the study of French 
in the place thereof." In the catalogue of '60-61 appears for the 
first time the name of a professor of French and German. There 
were, at the earlier period, two literary societies in the college, and a 
Natural History Society. "The necessary expenses of an academic 
year, exclusive of furniture, books and clothes, will be from $85 to 
$105." In 1851 the faculty consisted also of five men, one of whom 
was designated as Professor of Greek and one as Professor of Latin. 
The number of students was sixty-four. Of these a few more than 
one half are classed as preparatory and irregular. The conditions 
for entrance in Greek and Latin were comparatively high. The 
postulant must be acquainted with "Greek and Latin Grammar, 
Latin Reader, Virgil's Aeneid, Cicero's Orations or Sallust, and the 
Greek Reader." Latin is continued through two-thirds of the 
junior year, and Greek one term longer, there being three terms in 
the year. The decrease in the number of students was at least part- 
ly due to the interregnum mentioned elsewhere in this article. 

A contributing cause may also have been the establishment of 
other schools of like grade. Three of these were at no great dis- 



tance from Athens. Marietta was chartered in 1830. Of nearly the 
same date are the charters of Muskingum College at New Concord, 
and of Denison University at Granville. Owing to the impossibility 
of the trustees to secure a reappraisement of the college land, they 
found themselves unable to pay an accumulated debt of about $14,- 
000 in 1844. After the resignation of President McGuffey, the col- 
lege was carried on in a haphazard sort of a way until April 2, 
1845, when the trustees resolved that "in view of the present de- 
pressed conditions of the University in consequence of its financial 
embarrassment, the falling off in the attendance of students, it 
appears indispensable for a time to suspend the ordinary opera- 
tions of the college." During the period of suspension, which was 
to begin on the first Thursday in August, 1845, "unless circum- 
stances should justify an earlier resumption," the Rev. Aaron Wil- 
liams was authorized to continue the work of the academic or pre- 
paratory department, at a salary of $600 per annum, with the addi- 
tion of tuition fees until the whole should amount to $800. Mr. Wil- 
liams was also to have general charge and care of the college prop- 
erty. For two years he was the entire faculty; during the third 
year he had an assistant. College work was resumed in the fall 
of 1847 with a very small attendance of students, the accumulated 
debt having meanwhile been liquidated as the rents from the col- 
lege lands, of course, continued to come in. 

Jacob L|ndley was graduated from Princeton in 1793, at the 
age of twenty-four. Five years later he was installed as the pastor 
of the Presbyterian church at Waterf ord, Ohio, now the name of one 
of the townships of Washington county, the same county in which 
Marietta College is situated. His connection with the Ohio Univer- 
sity begins with the year 1805 and continued until 1838, when he 
removed to the State of Mississippi. He was the first instructor 
in the college, which began operations in 1809 with three students, 
although the charter is dated five years earlier. He had one assis- 
tant, William Sawyer, a graduate of Harvard. He is said to have 
had an unfortunate penchant for strong drink. In 1818 Joseph 
Dana was employed as Professor of Latin and Greek. The faculty 
was organized in 1822. It consisted of a president, a professor of 
mathematics, a professor of rhetoric and moral science, a professor 
of languages, and a preceptor. 

During the next two years the affairs of the college seem to have 



been in a somewhat chaotic condition. In 1824 the Rev. Robert "Wil- 
son was elected president. He was a native of North Carolina and 
a graduate of Dickinson College in Pennsylvania. The year of his 
birth was 1768. At the time of his election he was the pastor of the 
Presbyterian church at Chillicothe. He held the presidency for 
fourteen years. He resigned in 1838 on account of advancing years, 
although he lived until 1851. President Wilson was succeeded by 
William H. McGuffey, a name that was familiar to almost every 
American who attended a public school in the last half of the nine- 
teenth century. He was born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, 
in 1S06, but when quite young his father migrated into Ohio, where 
the lad grew to manhood. 

The elder McGuffey, who was a sturdy farmer, saw little need 
of what is called education, and discouraged his son's fondness for 
books. As there were at that time no schools in the region where the 
family lived, the boy walked several miles two or three times a week 
to recite to a preacher the lessons he had learned at night by the 
light of a torch made of burning pine-knots. When his pupil was 
eighteen years old the teacher considered him sufficiently advanced 
to enter Washington College, an institution that had been chartered 
in 1806. He received his baccalaureate degree in 1826, earning his 
way by teaching wherever he could find employment. His last en- 
gagement of this kind was in Paris, Kentucky, where he taught a 
school in a smoke-house that was still standing a few years ago. 

In 1836 a college was organized in Cincinnati, and McGuffey was 
elected president, but it continued in operation only three years 
when it was closed for lack of funds. After his rather brief but very 
stormy career at Athens, he returned to Cincinnati to accept a posi- 
tion in the Woodward High School. Some years later William 
Rives, a member of the board of visitors of the University of Vir- 
ginia, heard Dr. McGuffey lecture, and was so impressed with the 
personality of the man and his power as a speaker, that upon his 
recommendation he was invited to become a member of the faculty 
of the University. In the service of that institution he spent the re- 
mainder of his life, teaching, preaching and lecturing. One day in 
the spring of 1873, after delivering a lecture to children, he was 
taken ill with an affection of the brain, and died a few weeks later. 
During his residence in Cincinnati, he was one of a coterie of school- 
men who became dissatisfied with the textbooks then in use. They 





accordingly decided to prepare a series on a rational plan. The 
"Eclectic Series" was the result. The "Readers" were assigned to 
McGuffey, as he was regarded the best qualified for the task. They 
contain no original contributions by him, but include a few by E. D. 
Mansfield, who was one of the junta. Dr. McGuffey was a fluent 
speaker, but not a profound thinker. His manner in the pulpit was 
expository rather than hortatory, hence he was better fitted for 
teaching than for preaching. He does not seem to have written any- 
thing that has been preserved. A citizen of Athens used to relate 
that in his boyhood he frequently drove President McGuffey to 
churches and school-houses where he was to preach. On such occas- 
ions he was wont to ask the youth to suggest some verse of scripture 
to be used as a text for the sermon. Although ordained as a regular 
minister of the Presbyterian church, it does not appear that he ever 
held a regular pastorate. 

The Rev. Alfred Ryors was a native of Philadelphia, and a grad- 
uate of Jefferson College, which was later merged into AVashington 
and Jefferson. He had been connected with the Ohio University for 
several years when he was elected its president in 1848. After four 
years of service he was called to the head of the Indiana Univer- 
sity. He was succeeded by the Rev. Solomon Howard, a native of 
Cincinnati, and a graduate of Augusta College in Kentucky. After 
holding several positions in the schools of Ohio, he was elected to 
the presidency of the Ohio University in 1852 and continued in 
office until 1872. He was the first Methodist who held the position. 
He was a somewhat eccentric character, and some of his "breaks" 
are still remembered by older Athenians. He is reported to have 
declared on a certain occasion that there was more Sabbath-break- 
ing on Sunday than on any other day of the week. At another time 
he pointed to a large beech tree in the college campus and informed 
his hearers that it was not so long ago that it was nothing but an 
acorn. His successor was William H. Scott, who has been men- 
tioned elsewhere. 

Editor's Note.— The writer of the foregoing narrative, Charles W. Super, was 
the seventh president of Ohio University. He was born in Pottsville, Penn., September 
12, 1842. He was reared in humble fashion, and his early education was mainly self- 
acquired. He was graduated from Dickinson College, paying his way in large degree 
from his earnings as a school teacher, and for three years after graduation, continued 
such. In 1869-70 he made special studies of Latin, Greek and Hebrew in the University 
of Tubingen, Germany. After his return home he resumed teaching, and was for six- 
years professor of languages in Cincinnati Wesleyan College, at different times teaching 



Greek, Latin, Hebrew, French, Spanish, Italian and German. In 1879 he was appointed 
Professor of Greek in Ohio University. In 18S2 he visited Europe, making a study of 
$ie school systems of various countries. In 1SS3 he came to he headship of Ohio 
University to supply a vacancy, and the next year was elected president, which position 
he resigned in 1907 to devote himself to literary work. He is the author of numerous 
published volumes, and a contributor to many periodicals in English and German. Two 
of his latest works belong to the World War period, and are valuable additions to the 
literature of that time — "German Idealism and Prussian Militarism," which was trans- 
lated into the Czecho-Slovak language ; and "Pan-Prussianism." 




-i^-^^.W.^..!— i. 

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Lucius L. Culver 

By Winfield S. Downs, New York City 

R|jj§5^1|j5l LTHOUGH at no time a very numerous family, the Cul- 
vers or Colvers are readily traced in many of the Eng- 

wr^-^i'i lish shires. The name is found in various forms of 
gSsisI spelling, such as Colver, Collver, Coluer, Culver, and 
Cullver. Several excellent authorities state that the family origi- 
nated in Saxony, and that the descendants in England and later in 
America were of Saxon ancestry. In America the various branches 
have invariably used one or the other of the two forms, Culver and 
Colver, both of which are found in the old records applying to the 
same person. The name is the application as a patronymic of the 
word "culver," meaning a pigeon or dove. 

Edward Culver, the founder of the family in America, came from 
one of the southeastern countries of England to America in 1635 
with John Winthrop, the younger, son of John Winthrop, Governor 
of Massachusetts. Edward Cutler settled first at Dedham, Massa- 
chusetts, with his wife Ann, removing later to Connecticut, and 
residing in turn at New London, Groton, and New Haven. lie was 
a soldier in King Philip's War, and had a grant of land in New 
London, on the Mystic river, on the water side, next south of the 
Fort land. 

The American branch of the family bears the following crest : 

A dexter cubit arm holding in the hand a club proper, underneath the crest an empty 
shield argent. 

The name of Culver is inseparably connected with the city of St. 
Louis, Missouri, through the career of Lucius Lewellyn Culver in 
industrial and commercial relations, and through the interested and 
generous activity of Mr. and Mrs. Culver in civic, philanthropic, and 
charitable enterprises. In the two decades that have passed since 
the death of Mr. Culver, Mrs. Culver has continued alone the works 
that were formerly their joint interests, and with steadfast devo- 
tion she has made the alleviation of suffering and the aid of the 
unfortunate her guiding aim of life. 



Lucius Lewellyn Culver was born in Champaign county, Ohio 
March 18, 1839. His early youth and young manhood were unevent- 
ful, his education one of fair proportions, and for a few years after 
his marriage he resided in Illinois, moving to St. Louis about 1876. 
His business career in that city covered less than a quarter of a 
century, but into that period he put an almost unbelievable amount 
of energetic labor in industrial connection. 

About 18S1 he became a founder of the AVrought Iron Range 
Company, of St. Louis, and for a number of years was officially 
identified with this organization, its prosperity and successful con- 
tinuance largely due to his clarity of judgment, determination in 
the attainment of desired ends, and close personal touch with all 
branches of the concern. 

After severing his relations with the Wrought Iron Range Com- 
pany, Mr. Culver did not immediately re-enter the manufacturing 
field, but in 1890 organized the L. L. Culver Manufacturing Com- 
pany for the manufacture of furnaces for hot water heating sys- 
tems. In 1891 the business was reorganized on a larger scale as the 
Majestic Manufacturing Company, and Mr. Culver became presi- 
dent of this organization, associating with himself, in 1892, Messrs. 
John Fowler and R. H. Stockton. Mr. Stockton was vice-president 
and Mr. Fowler secretary and treasurer of the company, and the 
manufacture of Majestic Malleable Iron Ranges was begun. This 
range embodied original ideas of Mr. Culver and met every domestic 
requirement. Mr. Culver was president of this company at the 
time of his death, and in addition to leadership in the determination 
of the policy of the company, made the active charge of the factory 
his especial province. 

In the course of his work, Mr. Culver came to the conclusion 
that he had designed a range immeasurably superior to any then 
on the market. Notwithstanding the fact that the market for 
cooking stoves was at that particular time overstocked, and that 
prudence and conservatism would have dictated delay in introduc- 
ing this new model, he formulated plans for its manufacture and 
sale, giving to the stove trade and to the purchasing public the first 
steel and malleable iron range manufactured. Its outstanding merit 
won general favor and a judicious and widespread advertising cam- 
paign placed the new range in the lead in national demand. The 
result was a flood of orders that taxed the capacity of their foundry 


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to the limit. Mr. Culver's associates attributed to his courage and 
proved judgment, as well as to his inventive genius, this splendid 
achievement, and credited to him the prosperity that attended the 
enterprise. lie combined the qualities of the capable, industrial 
manager with those of the far-seeing, constructive executive, and in 
paths of. unquestioned honor he led the way to commercial influence 
and material fortune. 

Mr. Culver, close as was his application to the large interests that 
claimed so much of his time and attention, was ever ready to aid 
any movement toward civic improvement or any undertaking of 
progress. He was a dependable factor in the support of any pro- 
ject appealing to the high citizenship of St. Louis residents, and 
charitable enterprises and philanthropic works knew his generous 

Lucius Lcwellyn Culver married, in Danville, Illinois, in I860, 
Mary E. Comegys, born in Champaign county, Ohio, March 19, 
1841, daughter of Cornelius and Ann Bell (Dunlap) Comegys. Mr. 
Culver died in St. Louis, February 11, 1899. 

Mrs. Culver has continued her residence in St. Louis, where she 
has long been prominent socially, and where her kindly spirit and 
sympathetic nature have found expression in the most helpful char- 
itable work of the city. Her life is a long record of constant devo- 
tion to her husband during his lifetime, and of watchfulness for 
opportunities to do good. Most of her kindly acts have been unher- 
alded, performed solely to meet an insistent need and to fulfil the 
deep convictions of stewardship she so keenly feels. For a long 
period of years she has been the loyal friend of the L. L. Culver 
Union Hospital Association, which is located at Whitlock Place, 
Crawfordsville, Indiana. 

The Hospital building above mentioned was dedicated on 
Thanksgiving Day, November 28, 1892, having been erected at a cost 
of $12,000. It was the outgrowth of the work of the Women's 
Union, an organization performing systematic social service in 
Crawfordsville, but whose endeavors had been handicapped by lack 
of finances to support the hearty enthusiasm and self-sacrifice of its 
members. Mrs. Culver became interested in their work, joined the 
Association as a life member, and, impressed with the vision of their 
work, made an initial gift of $10,000 for the building of the hospital, 



and later added to the fund until her gift totalled $13,200. The 
hospital, which had previously been known as the Union Hospital, 
its incorporated title, was renamed the L. L. Culver Union Hospital, 
in recognition of its benefactress, and as a memorial to her revered 

The Blind Girls' Home of St. Louis is another of Mrs. Culver 'a 
especial interests and the recipient of her liberal aid, while no 
opportunity to lighten the burden of her fellows, to smooth their 
paths, or to help them along life's journey, is neglected by her. 
The distinguished service of her husband, and the large measure of 
good she has accomplished with her means and influence, have made 
the name of Culver a blessing to St. Louis. 



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Robert Thompson Van Horn 

By Fenwick Y. Hedley, New York City 

I sprj-jHE subject of this narrative was a superb type of that 
class of "Easterners" (as they were formerly known 
in the Middle West) who were factors of first import- 
ance in the development of the commercial and political 

importance of a large part of the region then known as "The West," 
and particularly that greater portion of the State of Missouri lying 
inland from the Mississippi river, and that contiguous expanse 
which became the State of Kansas, but which then figured in school 
geographies as "The Great American Desert," incapable of cultiva- 
tion or human habitation. 

Col. Robert Thompson Van Horn, born at East Mahoning, Indiana 
county, Pennsylvania, May 19, 1824, was of Holland ancestry, 
son of Henry Van Horn, a farmer, of Bucks county, Pennsylvania, 
and a grandson of Isaiah Van Horn, who was a Revolutionary War 
soldier, as were two of his brothers. Young Van Horn was reared 
upon a farm, and had the most meagre school facilities — reading and 
writing, a very little geography without aid of maps, and a smat- 
tering of elementary arithmetic. At the age of nineteen he was 
apprenticed to a printer, "learned the trade," and traveled in sev- 
eral States as a "jour printer" — a name which designated a unique 
character who disappeared many years ago, of whom it may be 
said as of the lost star in the Pleiades, "while it lived, it shone." 
At intervals young Van Horn was clerk in a store or on a Mississippi 
or Ohio river steamboat. In these varied callings he gained a pro- 
found knowledge of what does not lie within the folds of text-books 
or on the tongue of school teachers — a knowledge of man, of his 
thoughts and aspirations and hopes and fears — a knowledge which 

Note. — This narrative by the editor of this work is written in the light of an intimate 
personal acquaintance with his subject, and contains matter derived from him in his own 
home by word of mouth, and from diaries and letter books, with no view to its publi- 
cation, and which has never before been committed to the press. An admirable pen- 
picture of the Kansas City of Col. Van Horn's early days there is to be found in a 
once widely read volume, "Beyond the Mississippi," published in 1866, by Albert D. 
Richardson, secretary of the Kansas Territorial Legislature, and a famous journalist, war 
correspondent of the New York "Tribune" during the War for the Union. 

This narrative is from Vol. IX of "Encyclopedia of American Biography," 
(The American Historical Society, Inc.), now in press. 




was to be of vast advantage to himself and to his fellows in future 

In 1855 he landed at Kansas City, Missouri, then a village of less 
than five hundred inhabitants. It was of some little consequence, 
however, for (railroads had not yet come) it was at the head of 
navigation on the Missouri river, and was the distributing point for 
food and supplies brought by boat from St. Louis, for the popula- 
tion there gathered, and for homeseekers in the neighborhood and 
those who were outfitting to cross the plains. Van Horn, with acute 
vision, foresaw the great city of the future, and determined to cast 
his lot there. The first newspaper had already appeared, a trifling 
sheet which was in a moribund condition. This he bought, pay- 
ing for it his entire fortune of $250, and giving his note for as much 
more. This was the beginning of the li Kansas Citv Journal," which 
after many privations and much heroic struggle he brought to 
nationwide recognition as the first of the markedly influential news- 
papers of all that region. It is truth to say that none other con- 
tributed in so large degree through the many years following which 
brought journalistic rivals, to the inauguration and development of 
all the varied interests that combined to make up an important 
metropolis — interests agricultural, commercial, industrial, educa- 
tional, and religious. The whole story of such a life as that of Col- 
onel Van Horn during those days of upbuilding, would be a thrilling 
recital of pioneer conditions, of struggles and privations, and of 
dangers innumerable. 

Colonel Van Horn's part in the creation of Kansas as a Free 
State and the holding of Missouri to the Union at the outbreak of 
the Civil "War, are most unique episodes in American history. Ab- 
horring human slavery, he was of that great class of his day who 
would not seek to uproot the system from where it had existence, 
holding that its protection under the constitutional compact was 
sacred. But he vehemently opposed its extension beyond those 
limits. He aided the Kansas Free-soilers with all his might, against 
the pro-slavery incursionists, and on more than one occasion saved 
the lives of free-soil leaders. His conduct when war was imminent 
was heroic in the extreme, and marked with incidents of dramatic 
force. In the spring of 1861, very soon after the firing upon Fort 
Sumter signalized the beginning of war, at the mayoralty election in 
Kansas City the issue of Union and Secession was distinctly made; 



and, so far as the writer has knowledge, the incident is without 
counterpart in the country. Colonel Van Horn, a Douglas Demo- 
crat, was the Union candidate, and his partner in the management 
of "The Journal" at that time was the Secession candidate. Col- 
onel Van Horn was elected, and the defeated candidate left for the 
South to join his fortunes with the Confederate army then forming. 
Missouri had a Secession goyernor, and Kansas City a Secession 
chief of police who antagonized Mayor Van Horn. Determined to 
put down the secession element, which was preparing to seize the 
city, Mayor Van Horn made a visit to the United States Arsenal 
near St. Louis, where he held a consultation with certain Union 
leaders and with Captain Lyon (afterward that General Lyon who 
fell in the battle of Wilson's Creek), and as a result of that con- 
ference, that officer sent a detachment of government troops to 
Kansas City to preserve order, as aid to the civil government rep- 
resented by Mayor Van Horn. Meantime Mayor Van Horn formed 
a military organization entitled " Major Van Horn's Battalion," to 
which Captain Lyon furnished arms. This effected, the federal 
troops were withdrawn, and Mayor Van Horn's authority, sup- 
ported as it was by Major Van Horn's own Battalion, was indis- 
putable. His letter books covering this period (and which have 
been seen by the writer of this narrative), are of great significance, 
and, while the transactions they record were of the utmost import- 
ance, the reader may well smile at the humorous construction of 
which they are susceptible, and which undoubtedly brought smiles 
to the face of Major and Mayor Van Horn as he was phrasing them. 
He drew the line between civil and military authority with the most 
exact discrimination, as illustrated on several occasions. At times, 
when he was desirous of carrying out some particular purpose in 
repression of secession activities, as mayor he would address to him- 
self as Major Van Horn a request for a military force to report to 
him and be subject to his orders ; to which Major Van Horn would 
make formal reply that he had placed his battalion under the orders 
of Mayor Van Horn. The end justified the means; Kansas City 
remained under loyal control, and was made the recognized strong- 
hold of Unionism in Western Missouri and Kansas. 

Major Van Horn, with his battalion as a nucleus, now took a 
leading part in the organization of the 25th Missouri Infantry Regi- 
ment, entering with the rank derived from his first command, was 



promoted lieutenant-colonel, and then to the colonelcy. He partici- 
pated in the battle of Lexington, Missouri, where he was wounded. 
Later, with his regiment, he was of General Grant's first army, 
and took part in the two days' battle of Shiloh, Tennessee, where 
his horse was killed under him. Incapacitated for field service by 
his wound, he returned home to take his seat in the State Senate, 
to which he had been elected while he was absent in military service, 
and in that body he labored zealously and with marked ability in 
defeating the purposes of the disloyal element which constantly 
sought to embarrass the government by refusing to raise troops or 
provide for their equipment and maintenance. His intimate knowl- 
edge of conditions in Missouri and Kansas, and his rugged honesty, 
commanded the respect and confidence of President Lincoln, who 
more than once called him into conference with himself. A notable 
instance was that when the Unionists of Missouri were divided into 
two bitterly hostile factions, which with the information he de- 
rived from Colonel Van Horn and his associates, and his own con- 
summate diplomacy, the President was enabled to conciliate. 

In 186-i Colonel Van Horn was elected to the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress, and by consecutive re-elections served for three terms ; then, 
after an intermission was elected to the Forty-seventh Congress in 
1888. As a congressman, he was untiring in his efforts to procure 
the passage of acts of importance to the rapidly growing West, and 
others of national importance. Many of the bills he himself framed 
and introduced, among them one for the improvement of naviga- 
tion on the western rivers, particularly the Missouri, the great 
commercial artery reaching the Mississippi; and another for the 
first railroad bridge across the Missouri, that at Kansas City. In 
all matters relating to the Indians, he was a first authority, and 
was author of certain legislation affecting them or their relations 
with the whites. His was the bill for the organization of the Terri- 
tory of Oklahoma, though it was not enacted until later. His in- 
fluence went farther than that of any other in effecting a treaty with 
the tribes in the Indian Territory, under the provisions of which 
a right of way through it for its first railroad was secured. His ser- 
vices in these and other respects, affecting conditions in the rapidly 
expanding West, were so highly appreciated by the Republicans 
of Missouri and Kansas, that they united in a strong appeal to 



President Hayes to appoint him to the Secretaryship of the Interior, 
hut the appointee had been already chosen. 

During all these years, Colonel Van Horn kept his newspaper in 
the forefront of journalism. A vigorous writer, absolutely devoid 
of selfishness, he sturdily advocated every project that could add to 
the development of his city or of the region tributary to it, many 
such being of his own initiation. Not a railroad which has yet en- 
tered the city but was advocated by him long before a charter was 
procured or a dollar subscribed for its building; and the most im- 
portant of its industries, all of its early ones, owed to him in large 
degree their establishment. While thus industriously employed in 
material concerns, they by no means monopolized his attention. 
Despite his lack of education in the usually accepted meaning of 
that term — scholastic training, — he was superbly equipped. From 
his youth a diligent reader, his mind was well stored, and he was a 
clear and logical thinker. For many years he wrote for his paper, 
in addition to his usual editorial work, a department in which he 
discussed scientific, moral, philosophical and socio-economic ques- 
tions in brilliant style, with great originality and fearlessness, point- 
ed with keen satire and sparkling wit. At times his analytical mind 
led him into the domain of metaphysics, in which he displayed a 
profundity beyond the mental depth of many of his readers, and 
which led one of his admiring friends to say of him, as was said 
of one by Bret Harte : 

"His views of heaven were very free ; 
His views of earth were painfully 

Not that he was irreverent or irreligious in the high sense of 
those words ; but he was not to be bound by man-made dicta. Rather, 
he felt that his Creator had endowed him with the ability to read his 
own heart and mind; to interpret to himself all meanings; to judge 
himself at the bar of his own conscience — as he would express it, to 
be "his own doctor of divinity." 

Such was his course of life until he was nearing his eightieth year, 
when he relinquished the newspaper to a son, and then devoted him- 
self to his home in the outskirts of the city, and to companionship 
with a charming circle of friends with tastes similar to his own, and 
among whom, for his great wealth of knowledge, felicity of expres- 
sion and geniality of heart, he was held to be "the noblest Roman of 



them all." Occasionally, too, did he contribute to "The Journal" 
of his creation, some historical reminiscence or philosophical dis- 
quisition in his old-time inimitable style. Such was this spacious life 
until its end, on January 2, 1916, in its ninety-third year, and leaving 
behind it fragrant memories. 



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Brown=Stoddart Families 

By John P. Downs, Haddonfield, New Jersey 

Arms — Sable three lions passant between two bendlets argent and as many trefoil? 
slipped ermine. 

Crest — A buck's head sable attired or, issuing from a crown, paly, gold. 
Motto — Si sit prudentia. 

"HE following is the record of two men, father and son, 
! *jM\ whose lives paralleled each other in many important 
:y '^\ respects, John Brown and Robert Shoemaker Brown. 
Both were residents of Easton, Pennsylvania, both con- 
tributed largely to the slate industry of Northampton, both reared 
business structures honorable and impressive, and both are known 
as men who did well the task that came to their hands. 

John Broivn was born in Newburgh, New York, June 9, 1808, 
died at Easton, Pennsylvania, November 4, 1889, and is buried in 
Easton Cemetery. His early life was spent upon the home farm, 
and he attended public school until he was fourteen years of age. 
He then obtained permission to leave home to work upon the Dela- 
ware & Hudson Canal, which was then in the course of construc- 
tion. When the canal was completed he did not return to the farm, 
but entered the employ of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Com- 

Here he developed business qualities that caught the attention 
of his superiors and caused a steady rise in position that led into an 
important and responsible place in the company. For forty years 
he continued with the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, rank- 
ing with its most capable leaders, and during this period resided in 
White Haven, Pennsylvania. When he resigned from the company 
he moved to Easton, where he owned a handsome residence and oc- 
cupied it until the close of his life. 

Mr. Brown's experience was that of many men who attempt to 
discontinue business habits that have been years in the forming, and 
time hung heavily on his hands. Becoming interested in the slate 
quarries of Bangor, he invested in the stock of various companies 
operating in this district, and became the owner of more stock and 



actual quarry holdings than perhaps any other resident of Easton. 
Throughout his life he remained in close personal touch with these 
interests, although their active management was largely the care of 
his son, Robert S. Brown. These business interests led him into 
other channels of industry, and he became financially connected with 
numerous manufacturing corporations of the locality. He was an 
important factor in the Lehigh Valley, the Lehigh & Susquehanna 
and the Bangor & Portland railroads. His business judgment was 
regarded with the highest respect by his associates, and during a 
long and active career his reputation was untouched by anything 

Mr. Brown married Maria Stoddart, born at Stoddartsville, Penn- 
sylvania, July 23, 1819, died in Easton, Pennsylvania, March 11, 
1883, daughter of Leonard and Sarah (Ellis) Stoddart (q. v.). Mr. 
and Mrs. Brown were members of Brainerd Union Presbyterian 
Church, and its liberal supporters. They were the parents of four 
children : 

1. Sarah Stoddart, born September 20, 1840, died in Yosemite 
Valley in June, 1911, wif e of E. L. Dief endcrf or ; they were the par- 
ents of: (i) Estelle, who married A. R. Warner, of Chicago, Illi- 
nois, where they now live ; their children : Robert D., married Mar- 
jorie Follonsby, and has one child, Janet; Helen and Ruth, (ii) 
Harold, graduate of Lafayette College, and a graduate M. D. of the 
University of Pennsylvania, now practicing in Chicago, Illinois ; he 
married Nellie Doty, of Chicago, and they have three children: 
George, Mary and Sallie. 

2. Elizabeth, the only survivor of the family, a resident of 
Easton, her home at No. 123 North Third street. She is a lady of 
quiet life and gentle manner, a devoted member of Brainerd Union 
Presbyterian Church; during the war she was deeply interested 
in the work of the Red Cross and the Navy League, to both of which 
she belonged. 

3. Maria Louisa, died unmarried, April 11, 1914. 

4. Robert Shoemaker, of further mention. 

The family home was on Wolf street, and there both John Brown 
and his wife passed away. The old home is now the site of the 
Easton Hospital. 

Robert Shoemaker Brown, only son of John and Maria (Stoddart) 
Brown, was born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, August 27, 1857. He 
attended school at New Haven, Connecticut, and his education 
included a course in business college and military school training. 



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Ilis father became his business tutor early in life, and while still a 
young man he was entrusted with the slate quarrying interests of 
the elder Brown. After the death of Mr. John Brown, Robert Shoe- 
maker Brown succeeded him in full charge of his important inter- 
ests, and became one of the leading slate operators of the country. 
Mr. Brown was president and owner of the American Slate Com- 
pany, and through his holdings in that company owned or controlled 
the Bangor Excelsior Slate Company, of which he was president, 
and the Bangor Union Slate Company, of which he was president, 
and the Pennsylvania Structural Slate Company. He was also 
president and general manager of the Genuine Bangor Slate Com- 
pany, and was lessee of the Albion Quarry at Pen Argyl, the North 
Bangor Quarry, and the Keenan Structural Slate Quarry. His 
slate property operations, affecting the lives and fortunes of large 
numbers throughout the slate regions, were managed with judg- 
ment and skill, and were without exception thriving, prosperous 
organizations. He gave his services as director to the Easton Na- 
tional Bank, the Northampton Trust Company, and the Northamp- 
ton National Bank. He maintained a suite of offices in the Drake 
building in Easton, and there employed a large force in the various 
departments of his business. He was a generous supporter of all 
worthy causes that were brought to his attention, but his gifts were 
made quietly and without public notice. His club was the Pom- 
fret, and he was a member of Easton Lodge, No. 121, Benevolent 
and Protective Order of Elks. 

Robert Shoemaker Brown was survived by his second wife, Ida 
M. Keiper Brown, who died in Easton, early in 1919. They were 
the parents of four children: 1. Robert Shomaker (2), engaged in 
business in New York City. 2. Frank Raynor, of whom further. 3. 
Elizabeth M., married Donald Sceart Egbert, and now resides in 
Chicago, Illinois. 4. L. Renton, a resident of Easton, Pennsylvania. 

Frank Bay nor Brown was born December 31, 1891, in Easton, 
Pennsylvania, and died in the city of his birth, May 16, 1916, son of 
Robert Shoemaker and Ida M. (Keiper) Brown. Frank R. Brown 
was educated at Nazareth Hall, Nazareth, Pennsylvania, and at 
Mercersburg College, completing his course at the last named insti- 
tution with the graduating class of 1912, and later attended Rens- 
selaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York. After graduation, 



Mr. Brown engaged in the slate business, a line of activity in which 
both his father, Robert Shoemaker Brown, and his grandfather, 
John Brown, had been conspicuous. He at once assumed responsi- 
ble position, but his business career was cut short, and ere he had 
fully demonstrated the abilities he possessed, death claimed him. 
He was a member of St. Mark's Reformed Church, a Republican in 
politics, a member of the Spartan Club of Easton, and of Easton 
Lodge, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. He was very pop- 
ular in these orders, and everybody was his friend. Just at the 
threshold of life, with brilliant business and social prospects, Frank 
Raynor Brown closed his earthly career. 

Frank R. Brown married in Allentown, Pennsylvania, June 11, 
1914, Edith M. Lynch, of Phillipsburg, New Jersey, born at Royers- 
ford, Pennsylvania, August 31, 1891. She was educated in St. 
Michael's Parochial School, at Reading, Pennsylvania, and at Vil- 
lanova Academy near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They were 
the parents of one son, John Ronton, born in Easton, December 6, 

(Stoddart — Stoddard Line). 

Anns— Sable, three estoiles within a bordure argent. 

Crest — A demi-horse ermine environed round the body with a ducal coronet or. 

Motto — Festina lentc (Use dispatch, but cautiously). 

The name variously spelled Stoddart, Stoddard, Stodart, Stod- 
ard, is derived from the office of standard bearer, and was anciently 
written De La Standard. William Stoddard, a knight, came from 
Norriandy to England with "William the Conqueror, in 1066, the 
leader of the Norman forces, his cousin. Among those of later day 
bearing his name appears Rukard Stoddard, of Nottingham, Kent, 
near Elthan, about seven miles from London Bridge, where the 
family estate of about four hundred acres was located. This came 
into the possession of the family in 1490 and continued in the line 
until 1765. In the colonial records of Wethersfield, Connecticut, the 
name is frequently found as Stodder, Stoder, Stodker, and Stod- 
dard. John, born about 1620, was an early settler in Wethersfield, 
and was a juror in 1643, and Anthony, who came from England to 
Boston about 1639, was the founder of another line of the family. 

These were undoubtedly English and American colonial mem- 
bers of the family of Leonard Stoddart and John Stoddart, the lat- 


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ter a wealthy merchant of Philadelphia early in the nineteenth 
century. John Stoddart laid out the town of Stoddartsville at 
the Lehigh Falls in 1815 and it bears his name today. He built a 
large stone grist and saw mill, great operations at that time, cost- 
ing more than twenty thousand dollars, and he was also proprie- 
tor of the first store and tavern and the first blacksmith, wagon, 
and copper shop. A busy little mountain village opened up, and had 
the original plans of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, 
which was so potent a factor in the development of Northeastern 
Pennsylvania in the early part of the century, been carried out, the 
project would have been a large success. But a radical change in 
navigation plans took place and the Stoddartsville village became 
a failure which almost ruined its enterprising founder. Stoddarts- 
ville was to have been the head of navigation, but in some manner 
White Haven, Luzerne county, became the head of navigation. This 
action, which could be neither foreseen nor averted, left Stoddarts- 
ville a village in the pine forests, a dozen miles from that commer- 
cial highway which was to float the flour of Luzerne county to Phil- 
adelphia. Mr. Stoddart bravely undertook to fight against fate 
by hauling his flour to Easton by wagon, but gave up the struggle 
against such odds after two or three years. While this enterprise 
was ending disastrously, his Philadelphia mercantile establishment 
was completely destroyed by the financial stringency growing out 
of the embargo acts and other evil effects of the War of 1812. His 
fortune was swept away and he was never able to regain it, being 
compelled to end his days as a clerk in a commercial house. He 
had a son, Isaac Stoddart, who married Lydia Butler, a grand- 
daughter of Colonel Zebulon Butler, who led the Wyoming soldiery 
in the fighting at the time of the Wyoming Massacre. 

Leonard Stoddart was a coppersmith. He married Sarah Ellis, 
and both of them died in Stoddartsville. They were the parents of 
Henry, John, Lydia, Mary; Sarah, died young; Anne, married 
Thomas Tattershall; and Maria, who married John Brown (q. v.). 


History of the Blaine Mansion 



^^!HE history of the Blaine house and lot in Augusta, Maine, 
,f;fj both before and after it came into the Blaine family, 

j4m is very interesting. The lot is a part of Number 5 of the 
li so called "front lots" on the plan made June 17, 1761, 
by Nathan Winslow, surveyor, for the Proprietors of the Kennebec 
Purchase. These lots were fifty rods wide, and ran back from the 
river one mile. Between Lot Number 5 and the lot next south (Num- 
ber 4) was a so-called "Rangeway" which is now Capitol street, 
William Vassal, from whom the town of Yassalboro was named, 
was one of the Proprietors. Certain lots, called "Proprietors' 
Lots," were allotted by vote, and William Vassal became the owner 
of this Lot Number 5. 

On March 2, 1770, when Kennebec county was a part of Lincoln 
county and the registry was at Wiscasset, William Vassal conveyed 
the lot for the consideration of "love and affection" to his niece, 
Mary Prescott, spinster, of Chester, Nova Scotia. On December 
22, 1770, she conveyed it for "100 pounds sterling" to Abraham 
Page, of Hallowell, Maine, who on July 3, 1780, for "600 Spanish 
mill dollars" conveyed to Mathew Haywood, of Easton, Massachu- 
setts. On April 22, 1800, Mathew Haywood conveyed to James 
Child, of Augusta, that part of the south half of the lot between 
the river and the "county road." This was the road that ran from 
Augusta to Hallowell, and is now Grove street. The deed recalls the 
days when fish ran plentifully in the Kennebec river, for there was 
a reservation of ' ' one half of the privilege of fishing at the bank of 
said river." 

August 24, 1830, James Child conveyed to Captain James Hall, 
of Bath, a lot nine rods north and south and twelve rods east and 
west "on the west side of the new road leading from Augusta across 
Capitol Hill, so-called, to Hallowell." This road is now State street, 
and became the established road, replacing Grove street, the lower 
part of which was discontinued. 

Note. — This narrative is from "Sprague's Journal of Maine History." 



The corner stone of the State House was laid July 4, 1829, and 
the building was completed in 1S32. Captain Hall added one rod 
to the western side of his lot by another conveyance from Mr. Child, 
dated September 13, 1833. Captain Hall built the house, which in 
the deed given after his death by his sons to their mother on Febru- 
ary 14, 1843, is described as "his Mansion House." This consisted 
of the front part of the present house and an ell. James Child con- 
veyed to his son, James L. Child, the lot next north, which later 
became the homestead of the late Joseph A. Homan, and has been 
purchased by the State. 

The late Caroline G. Manley, mother of the late Joseph H. Mauley; 
used to say that the Blaine house was built in 1833. She lived for 
many years in the Homan house. There is in the State Library a 
picture of the Capitol and its surroundings, painted in 1836 by 
Charles Codman. Just north of the Capitol are two houses, obvious- 
ly the Hall house and the Child house. The shape of both houses, 
the roofs and windows, are the same, and close inspection shows the 
porch on the front of the Hall Mansion. It had been supposed that 
the original porch was an open one and that the walls and windows 
enclosing it had been later put on, but when these walls were re- 
moved in the summer of 1920, it was found that they had been there 
from the first. Why is a question, for they have been concealing all 
these years beauties of old colonial architecture. The front as it 
now appears is an old colonial design of the finest type. 

November 16, 1S33, Captain Hall and James L. Child by agree- 
ment located the boundary line between them. As has been said, 
after Captain Hall's death his sons conveyed to their mother, Fran- 
ces Ann Hall, by deed dated February 14, 1843, and on February 
22, 1850, she conveyed to Greenwood C. Child, another son of James. 
November 20, 1862, the heirs of Greenwood C. Child conveyed to 
Harriet Stanwood Blaine. 

Mr. Blaine made important additions to and changes in the house. 
He built on the west end of the ell practically a duplicate of the 
front part. The front part was always called in the family the 
"old part" and the addition the "new part." On the south side 
of the new part was an entrance with a small square porch. This 
entrance led on the right into "father's library" as it was called, 
and on the left into the billiard room, a large octagonal room. 

President Grant, with his daughter Nellie and his sons Ulysses 



and Jesse, came to Augusta on Tuesday, August 12, 1873, and re- 
mained until Friday, the 15th, when he went with Mr. Blaine to Bar 
Harbor. He was the guest of Mr. Blaine, then speaker of the Na- 
tional House of Representatives. The daughter of Mrs. Manley 
recalls that she was taken into the Blaine house to meet President 
Grant, and was presented to him in the billiard room. This 
proves that the new part was built prior to President Grant's visit. 
But the time of the changes is more closely fixed by a letter of Mrs. 
Blaine's, dated May 29, 1872, to her son Walker, who was then in 
Europe, in which she wrote "You will find the old house all reno- 
vated. ' ' She referred to the many things which had been done. 

In the south side of the old part and to the left of the hall were 
two connecting rooms called the front parlor and back parlor. In 
the north side and to the right of the hall were two rooms, the front 
called the sitting room, and back of that the dining room. At this 
time a rectangular addition with long windows was built upon the 
south wall of the old part for a conservatory, the entrance into 
which was from the front parlor. At this time also, or only a little 
later, the partition between the sitting room and the dining room 
was taken down and the two rooms thrown into one long dining 
room. Two pillars which stood out a little from the north and south 
walls took the place of the partition. These pillars have in the 
recent changes been removed. In that part of the dining room 
which had been the sitting room was the original wainscoting, put 
in when the house was built. This was not reproduced in the rest 
of the room when the two rooms were thrown together, but a differ- 
ent style was used. The old wainscoting has now been reproduced 
in the rest of the room. 

Mr. Blaine was so much pleased with the effect of the one long 
room that the following year the two parlors were changed in the 
same way. The partitions between the two and the conservatory 
were taken down and replaced with the pillars now there, and the 
three rooms made into one large living room. That part which had 
been the conservatory was afterwards always called in the family 
the Alcove. In the south side of and center of the old ell was an 
entrance, with double doors and small oblong porch which led into 
the low ceilinged hall or corridor between the hall in the old part 
and the library and billiard room in the new. 

On the last evening, Thursday, of President Grant's visit, a re- 



ception and ball was given in his honor by Mr. Blaine. "An elaborate- 
ly constructed dancing pavilion gracefully trimmed with flags and 
streamers" was built for the occasion. The pavilion was a platform 
covered by a marques tent erected between the old and new parts in 
front of this porch, and the guests went from the house into the 
pavilion through this entrance. 

In later years the space between the old and new parts on each 
side and in front of the porch was filled in to make an open veranda 
with balustrade in front, and the steps leading up into the porch 
were placed in front of this veranda. At the east end of the veranda 
was a window into the living room ; the wall and wainscoting under 
this window were hinged so that it could be used as a door out to the 
veranda. This window is now a door from the living room into the 
new lounge. The long hall or corridor upstairs connecting the old 
and new parts and over the corridor below, just described, was 
known in the family as the gallery. The kitchen and other service 
rooms were in the north side of the ell and new part. The service 
entrance from the street was through a vestibule built on the north 
side of the house where the ell joined the old part; doors also 
opened into these rooms from the hall on the southern side of the 
ell which has just been described. In the recent changes all that part 
of the house between the old and new parts was torn down and has 
been replaced with new structure and a changed plan. 

When the Codman picture was painted, there was no cupola on 
the original house. A lady now living in Augusta, whose memory 
goes back many a year, states that there was a cupola on it when 
Mr. Greenwood Child lived there, and that flowers used to be placed 
by the windows in the cupola. It was observed that the ornamenta- 
tion on this cupola and also on the one on the new part, on the 
porch over the south entrance and on the alcove, was of the same 
design. This ornamentation has now been replaced with the simple 
details of the front porch. If there was a cupola on the old house, 
the ornamentation of it was copied for the additions, or else its 
ornamentation, originally different, was made like that of the new. 

There were in the old part four chambers, — the southeast, called 
after the chamber set in it the "Ash Room;" the southwest, called 
from its color plan the "Blue Room;" the northeast, "Aunt Susan's 
Room," for Mrs. Blaine's sister, Susan Stanwood, who lived with 
them for a number of years; the chamber next west called "Alice's 



Room," after the daughter Alice, who became the wife of Colonel 
Coppinger. The next room on the west was the chamber made up 
of part of the old house and of part of the connection, between the 
okl and the new part, and called from its peculiar style of roof and 
walls "The Irregular Room." In the changes recently made this 
room has been done away with. The room of Mr. and Mrs. Blaine 
was in the new part over the library. President Grant occupied this 
room during his visit. 

That part of the hall upstairs between the front wall of the house 
and the doors into the front chambers was separated from the rest 
of the hall by an arch. This space was known in the family as the 
archway. When Governor Hill occupied the house this space was 
made into a bathroom. This has now been removed and the hall left 
as it was originally, except that the arch was not put back and the 
doors into the front chambers have been moved further toward the 
front wall. The effect of the window at the end of the hall is very 

Mr. Blaine's son, James G. Jr., his daughter, Mrs. Margaret 
Blaine Damrosch, and granddaughter, Margaret Blaine Damrosch 
(II), were born in the "Ash Room;" his granddaughter, Anita 
Blaine Damrosch, in Mrs. Blaine's room; his daughter, Harriet 
Beale, and her son, Walker, in whose memory Mrs. Beale gave the 
house to the State, were born in the "Blue Room." 

John F. Hill occupied the house from May, 1897, until he moved 
into his new residence in December, 1902, near the close of the sec- 
ond year of his first term as governor. The house has therefore 
already been the gubernatorial residence. 

When President Roosevelt came to Augusta, Tuesday evening, 
August 26, 1902, he was entertained by Governor Hill. The two 
rooms over the library and billiard room were then a suite, and 
President Roosevelt occupied these, his chamber being the one over 
the billiard room. A stand was erected on the terrace at the north- 
east corner of the house, to the right of the front entrance, from 
which he spoke soon after his arrival. 

Mrs. Blaine took up her residence again in the house in the spring 
of 1903, and died there July 15, 1903, a little more than ten years 
'after Mr. Blaine's death in Washington, January 27, 1893. Her 
death was the only one in the house during the ownership by the 
family, a period of a little more than fifty-six years. 



Mrs. Blaine devised the home, one-fourth each to her son James 
G. and her daughters Mrs. Margaret Damrosch and Mrs. Harriet 
Beale, and one-eighth each to her grandsons, James G. Blaine Cop- 
pinger and Connor Walker Blaine Coppinger, sons of her daughter 
Alice. January 26, 1909, James conveyed his one-fourth to his sis- 
ters, Mrs. Damrosch and Mrs. Beale. As a twenty-first birthday 
present to his son, Walker Blaine Beale, Hon. Truxtum Beale pur- 
chased the interests of Mrs. Damrosch and Blaine and Connor Cop- 
pinger, who conveyed to Walker on his birthday, March 22, 1917. 

April 6, 1917, the United States declared war upon Germany, 
and the next day Walker Beale, then a junior at Harvard, telephon- 
ing from his college dormitory, placed the home at the disposal of 
the Committee of Public Safety of Maine, which had just been 
organized. The committee occupied it until December, 1918. 

Upon the death of Walker Blaine Beale, his five-eighths interest 
descended in equal shares to his father and mother. Mr. Beale 
conveyed his interest to Mrs. Beale, who then became the sole owner. 
She gave it to the State in memory of her son, on March 10, 1919. 


The Mayflower Compact and Samuel Fuller 
the Pilgrims' Doctor 

By Charles H. Bangs, M. D., Boston 

^T THE meeting of the Old Planters' Society, of Salem, 
Massachusetts, held in celebration of the Tercentenary 

anniversary of the settlement of New England in Amer- 
ica, the principal address was by Dr. Charles H. Bangs, 
of Boston, president of the University of Massachusetts, and vice- 
president of the Massachusetts Society, Sons of the American 
Revolution. The following synopsis of his remarks on "The May- 
flower Compact and its Significance," is reprinted from the "Salem 
News : ' ' 

In ye name of God Amen. We whose names are underwriten, 
the loyall subjects of our dread soveraigne lord King James, by ye 
grace of God, of great Britaine, France & Ireland, king, defender of 
ye faith, &c. 

Haveing undertaken, for ye glorie of God, and advancement of 
ye christian faith and honor of our king & countrie, a voyage to 
plant ye first colonie in ye Northerne parts of Virginia. Doe by 
these present solemnly & mutuary in ye presence of God, and one of 
another; covenant, & combine our selves togeather into a civill 
body politick ; for our better ordering & preservation & furtherance 
of ye ends aforesaid ; and by vertue hearof to enacte, constitute and 
frame shuch just & equal lawes, ordinances, Acts constitutions, & 
offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meete & conven- 
ient for ye generall good of ye Colonie : unto which we promise all 
due submission and obedience, In witness wherof we have here- 
under subscribed our names at Cap-Codd ye .11. of November, in ye 
year of ye raigne of our soveraigne Lord king James of England, 
France, & Ireland ve eighteenth and of Scotland ye fiftie fourth. 
Ano Dom. 1620. 

The Mayflower Compact was the great legacy that the Pilgrim 
Fathers bequeathed to the world. Three hundred years ago, in 
the cabin of the Mayflower, there was set in motion an influence that 
is rocking the world today. 

The little band of Mayflower Pilgrims, whom we must regard as 
the most far-reaching in their influence of any group of the early 
settlers of this country, there composed the most momentous docu- 



merit in the annals of history. A document so broad in its signifi- 
cance and so far-reaching in its influence that we are now, only 
after the lapse of three centuries, coming to realize its complete 
revolutionary effect on the governments of the world. 

.With the coming of the Pilgrim Tercentenary it is well that we 
read carefully the Mayflower Compact, not only in its lines, but 
between its lines, and familiarize ourselves with the conditions that 
led to its evolution. 

Driven by intolerance from their homes in England, a little band 
of people possessing certain independence of thought, and desiring 
above all else the right to worship God according to the dictates of 
their own conscience i ' resolved to goe into ye Low-Countries, wher 
they heard was freedom of religion for all men." After sojourning 
for some years in Holland and breathing the air of a greater free- 
dom "they began to incline to this conclusion, of removal to some 
other place." This change was contemplated "not out of new- 
fangledness, or other such like giddy humor," but from a "great 
hope and inward zeal that they had of laying some good foundation, 
or at least to make some way thereunto, for ye propagating and 
advancing ye gospil of ye kingdom of Christ in those remote parts 
of ye world." 

In the discussion that followed, "some were ernest for Guiana, or 
some of those fertile places in those hot climats, others were for 
some parts of Virginia where ye English had already made en- 
trance." Finally they undertook "for ye glorie of God, and ad- 
vancement of ye Christian faith and honor of our king & eountrie, a 
voyage to plant ye first colony in ye northerne parts of Virginia." 
The determination to settle in Virginia was reached only after they 
had arrived at a tacit understanding with the king that they were to 
have freedom; "for thus far they prevailed in sounding his majes- 
ties mind, that he should connive at them, & not molest them, pro- 
vided they carried themselves peacably." 

Thus they set out, not as adventurers or as seceders, but as cru- 
saders seeking to secure liberty and to advance the Christian faith 
in that mysterious land that lay far to the westward beyond the sea. 
We may then consider that the desire for freedom and liberty, in a 
broad sense, was a prime motive in the migration of the Pilgrims of 

Buffeted by wind and wave, weakened by sickness, ravaged by 
scurvy and probably by typhus fever, torn by dissensions verging on 
mutiny, worn out by sea-sickness and a voyage that had lasted four 
and one-half months from the time of the first embarkation, this 
little band of Pilgrims despaired of ever reaching their chosen 
destination in Virginia, and finally welcomed the opportunity to 
seek shelter behind the beckoning finger of Cape Cod. 

They had reached a shore on which they had no charter for pos- 



session, and in fact a land where neither the law nor the gospel held 
sway. Trespassers, cast by inclement weather and an intolerant sea 
upon an ungoverned shore, unbound by law and unrestrained by 
force, they were in a condition of unrecognized socialism, with an 
opportunity such as the socialist of today, however extreme his 
type, might envy. 

Cut off from home government, they were in a position where 
self-government of some kind became imperative. On shipboard 
they were under the command of the captain of the ship. On land 
they realized that the maintenance of law and order must be of the 
first importance. They must be their own law-makers. No veto 
power could be exercised over them, and the future bore for them 
only the outworking of the ideals within them. Sheltered by the 
protecting land from the fury of the sea, the inherent traits of these 
people commenced to assert themselves. 

Before even setting foot on that land which is now Provincetown, 
they assembled in the cabin of the Mayflower and there composed 
the earliest written constitution in history, and into it they wrote 
those fundamentals of constitutional democracy that are now knock- 
ing at the door of every nation. Realizing their isolation, they, by 
their very action, put in effect the principles of self-government for 
the maintenance of law and order. Actuated by the dictates of a 
mastering conscience, they pledged themselves in that constitution 
to enact only such laws as should be just and equal. "In the name 
of God, Amen, ' ' they wrote into that compact loyalty to race, vener- 
ation of God, and obedience to the law. 

Then, when they had completed the work, they signed the compact 
there written. By that act they recognized the great fundamental 
of the rights of the individual. There for the first time in the 
world's history the master and the man assumed equal rights and 
equal responsibilities in government, because four of the signers of 
the Compact came in the Mayflower in the capacity of "servants." 

Spirituality and Idealism always walk hand in hand. Therefore 
the Mayflower Compact, composed in an atmosphere tense with 
spiritual^ and religious fervor, must bear the impress of lofty 
ideals. So we find inculcated in it the principles of freedom and lib- 
erty, self-government, law and order, Godliness, loyalty, justice, 
equality, equal rights and obedience to law — those fundamentals 
that have been considered to constitute democracy, but which are 
now recognized as the foundation of Americanism. As such they 
reasserted themselves in the Declaration of Independence, they 
were amplified and purified in the freeing of the slaves, they have 
justified themselves in the building of a self-governmental empire 
which more than half encircles the world; they proved to be the 
winning ideals in the World W 7 ar, and are the foundation of four- 
teen Republics now founded in autocratic Europe. 



And after having done the most momentous thing ever done in 
the history of the world, these simple Godfearing Pilgrims "being 
thus arrived in a good harbor and brought safe to land, they fell 
upon their knees and blessed ye God of Heaven, who had brought 
them over ye vast & furious ocean, and delivered them from ye 
perils and miseries thereof againe set their feet on ye firm and 
stable earth, their proper elements." 

To the everlasting glory of the Pilgrims be it said that they 
purchased the land and the supplies that they might have seized; 
they established equal rights under the laws they made for their own 
government; and they laid without consciousness of its greatness, 
the foundation of government "of the people, for the people, and 
by the people." 

Who had the wildness of imagination to foresee that this little 
band of Pilgrims were to establish a self-governed empire upon 
which the sun should never set; or that their children of the tenth 
generation should be so actuated by the influence of the high ideals 
there established that they should lay down their lives by thousands 
and tens of thousands on the fields of battle-scarred Europe, to make 
world-wide the ideals of those humble, liberty-loving, God-fearing 

It was more than one hundred years before the Mayflower Com- 
pact was written that Martin Luther nailed his theses on the door 
of the cathedral at "Wittenburg, but the seed of freedom of thought 
there scattered sprang up on American shores. It was a century 
and a half later before its fruit nourished the intellectual needs of 
Washington. Nearly another century later it gave sustenance to 
the independence of thought characteristic of Lincoln. Now, as 
the seed of Americanism, it is germinating in those far distant parts 
of the world where it has re-seeded with freedom and liberty the 
fields made barren by autocracy and license. 

During the Tercentenary Celebration, Dr. Bangs, the speaker 
above quoted, spoke on "Samuel Fuller, the Pilgrims' Doctor." The 
following report of his remarks is reprinted by permission from 
the "Boston Medical and Surgical Journal" of December 16, 1920: 

"And in the end (after he had much helped others) Samuel Fuller, 
who was their surgeon and phisition, and had been a great help and 
comfort unto them," died. He was "a man godly, and forward to 
doo good, being much missed after his death." 

Such is the tribute paid by Bradford, the historian of the Pil- 
grims, to Samuel Fuller, who came with them in the Mayflower to 
Plymouth in 1620 and spent the remaining thirteen years of- his life 
in Plymouth Colony. He ministered not only to the Pilgrims and 
the natives, but was also called upon to render medical assistance 



among the Puritans as well. His home appears to have been in the 
present town of Kingston; but at the call of humanity, wherever his 
services were needed, Samuel Fuller performed the duties of his 
profession from Cape Cod to Cape Ann, traversing the pathless 
forests and sailing the uncharted waters to take relief to the suffer- 
ing. Serving the colonists constantly in his professional capacity 
from 1620 until his death in 1633, we believe that he fairly earned 
the title of First Resident Physician of New England. 

His ministrations extended outside the bodily needs of the col- 
onists, for as a deacon he ministered to the spiritual needs of the 
community that was so closely associated with the church. It is evi- 
dent that he endeared himself to all, both by his professional ability 
and by his upright life. Not only did he bear his burdens in Ply- 
mouth Colony, but he was more than once called to Charlestown and 
Naumkcak (Salem), and to Mattapan (Dorchester), to combat epi- 
demics in those places. 

The letter of Governor Endicott to Governor Bradford testifies 
to the high esteem in which he was held in the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony. Little is known of the early life of Samuel Fuller except 
what we gather from the records of the parishes of Redenhall and 
Wortwell in County Norfolk, England. By these records it appears 
that he was one of the eighteen children of Robert Fuller, butcher, 
to be baptized between February 18, 1561, and October 31, 1591. 
The date of Samuel's baptism is recorded as January 20, 1580, which 
shows that he was a man of middle age when he came over in the 
Mayflower. His wife and one child joined him by a later ship, and 
two children were born to them in Plymouth Colony. 

It may be inferred that he was one of the more prosperous of 
the Pilgrims, since he brought with him a servant, who died as they 
neared the land. Previous to the embarkation of the Pilgrims he 
was a deacon in Rev. John Robinson's church in Leyden. That he 
took an active part in the Pilgrim migration is shown by a letter 
written June 20, 1620, to John Carver and Richard Cushman. This 
letter, which was signed by Samuel Fuller, William Bradford, Isaac 
Allerton and Ed. Winslow (in the order named), was a vigorous pro- 
test against certain proposed measures whereby "yt the marchants 
should have half of mens houses and lands at ye divident," etc. In 
this transaction Samuel Fuller was associated with those who were 
the ablest among the Mayflower Pilgrims, and indicates that he 
was a man of importance in the business affairs of the organiza- 
tion. This is further borne out by the fact that he was the eighth 
signer of the Mayflower Compact, that most important American 
document. As a deacon in the church at Plymouth he took an active 
part in its affairs, and benefits are even now accruing to the church 
as the result of his farsightedness and devotion. His spiritual coun- 
sel seems to have been sought equally with his professional advice. 



The following is taken from "Plymouth and the Pilgrims," by 
Arthur Lord: "John Pory, on his return in 1622 from Virginia to 
England, stopped for a brief visit in Plymouth. He writes the Gov- 
ernor that 'for the space of one whole year of the two wherein they 
had been there, died not one man, woman or child.' Captain John 
Smith, writing in 1624, says: 'The place (Plymouth) it seems is 
healthful for the last three years * * * there having not one died 
of the first planters.' " 

In 1628 and again in 1629 he went to Charlestown and Salem at the 
request of Governor Endicott to combat epidemics of scurvy and in- 
fectious fever which had been brought in by the newly arriving 
ships. Governor Endicott sent for him because there was no physi- 
cian in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and because he had heard 
that "here was one that had some skill in yt way, & had cured divers 
of the scurvie, and of other diseases, by letting blood, and other 
means." May 11, 1629, Governor Endicott wrote to Governor Brad- 
ford : "I acknowledge myself much bound to you for your kind love 
and care in sending Mr. Fuller among us." 

With the ability of the physician, Dr. Fuller evidently combined 
the skill of the diplomat, for his visit to Salem and his meeting with 
Governor Endicott brought a much more cordial relation between 
the two colonies. It also resulted in a reconciliation of much of the 
disagreement between them as to forms of worship, led to an ac- 
quaintance between the two governors, and eventually helped to 
establish the union of the Plymouth and the Massachusetts Bay 
colonies under a single government. 

To Mattapan (Dorchester) Samuel Fuller was called in the sum- 
mer of 1630 to combat an epidemic in which he treated some twenty 
of the people. What may have been the nature of the epidemic we 
do not know. What were the merits of the treatment in the light 
of modern medicine, we have no right to discuss. While there is 
nothing to indicate the source or the profundity of his medical edu- 
cation, there is evidence that he practised in accordance with the 
standard of his times. As well may we assault the teachings of 
Hippocrates and Galen as to compare the work of this pioneer in 
medical practice in New England with the medical science of Amer- 
ica to-day. 

Suffice it to say, he served well the people of his day, according to 
the standards of his profession. He won the confidence and esteem 
of his associates both by his professional skill and his exemplary 
lite. He won the love of the community which he served by his devo- 
tion to its wellbeing. "A man godly, and forward to doo good, 
being much missed after his death" — what better epitaph need be 
written 1 

The recent years have produced only one medical service bearing 
any comparison to that of Samuel Fuller, — that has been the devoted 



sacrifice of Dr. Wilfred Grenfell in ministering to the people of 
Labrador. For his devotion to duty Dr. Grenfell has been honored 
with knighthood. How may we honor Dr. Samuel Fuller, the Pio- 
neer Resident Physician of New England! In this tercentenary 
year should we not do something worth while to perpetuate the name 
of the Pilgrims' Doctor? No deeds of arms or thrilling romance 
have given him a place in poesy. No royal commission nor high 
office has made conspicuous his name in colonial history. Yet he who 
simply served should have his well deserved place in the Pilgrims' 
Hall of Fame at this time when the thought of the world is turned 
toward the struggles and the achievements of the Pilgrims. Shall 
it not be the privilege and the pleasure of the medical profession of 
this entire country, regardless of the cleavage of lines of practice, 
to unite in establishing a suitable memorial to Dr. Samuel Fuller, 
the first doctor to acquire permanent settlement on these shores? 




In Sprague's Journal of Maine History, a quarterly magazine 
now in its ninth year, published at Dover, Maine, the editor, Mr. 
John Francis Sprague, is not only producing a work gratifying to 
the present-day reader, but one which will have ever increasing 
value as the years pass by. In the last two numbers are papers of 
notable interest: "Indian Treaties in Maine," a subject having a 
bearing upon the hunting rights of Indians in that State as adjudi- 
cated in its Supreme Court some few years ago; a "History of the 
Blaine Mansion" in Augusta, with mention of visits there by Pres- 
idents Grant and Roosevelt; an address on "The State of Maine," 
by Hon. Clarence Hale, a Justice of the United States District 
Court, before the Maine Society of New York; besides a long list 
of graves of Revolutionary soldiers in the Kennebec region; and 
much other important matter. 

The McCarthys in Early American History, by Michael J. 
O'Brien, (Dodd, Mead & Co., New York), is a well printed and well 
written narrative identifying members of the family in America 
with the earliest colonial times in Virginia and in the East, and 
also with the Revolutionary period, and following their descendants 
with their matrimonial alliances into the succeeding historic epochs. 
As a matter of course, several pages are given to their ancestral 
history in the land of their origin, but the main purpose is to show 
their relation to the beginnings of America. That the author seeks 
not to unduly exalt the subjects of his researches is indicated by 
his remarks in his Introduction, and to the spirit of which he rigidly 
adheres in his narrative : 

While there are clear indications that some of the American- 
Irish McCarthys of those early days were of the better classes and 
were men of education and refinement who, 'preferring an altar in 
the desert to a coronet at court,' voluntarily expatriated themselves 



to the Colonics, I have no doubt that the majority of those whose 
names appear in the early records crossed the seas as poor 'Ke- 
demptioners,' and had to work their way against obstacles of the 
most difficult character. But their record in America has been an 
honorable one, and in several instances they or their immediate 
descendants are seen to have risen to places of trust and responsi- 
bility in the business, political and social life of their day. 

The Evolution of Revolution, by H. M. Hyndman; (New York: 
Boni & Liveright), is a volume, to begin with, deeply interesting for 
its literary construction and the vividity with which the author 
presents his historical narrative, and which through several chap- 
ters forms the foundation for his argument. This portion of the 
work depicts the farthest removed primitive social conditions so far 
as they can be reasonably identified, beginning with the absolutely 
free individual man and tracing his loss of identity in the gens — 
the socialism or communism of that time. From such beginning the 
author follows the development of what we regard as civilization, 
but what he evidently regards as retrogression, through its begin- 
nings of private property to present-day industrialism and commer- 
cialism. In short, he sees little in the history of civilization and 
its development but the dark side which is ever side by side with 
every human effort and achievement. In the impending revolution 
which he forecasts (and not necessarily a revolution based upon or 
conducted by armsbearing and warring forces), he discerns a re- 
birth of humanity which (not his words or argument) will befit no 
abiding place except that "Paradise Regained" where none but 
angels dwell. In the communism or socialism, or whatever term 
may be applied to the conditions which are to follow when all that 
belong to present systems of industrialism and commercialism are 
overthrown and annihilated, he sees a transformation so wonderful 
as to be beyond the telling save in his own Utopian phrasing: 

For such delight in life as we can now foresee to be possibly at- 
tainable for all (when his revolution shall have been accomplished 
— Ed.) has never yet been experienced, even by the fortunate few. 
When from infancy and youth to full development and age, the 
beauties of nature and the pleasure of perfect health can be entered 
upon and enjoyed, with none of the sordid and degrading draw- 
backs due to the dire poverty or extreme riches of our day; when 
work is but the useful and pleasing expression of zeal for the com- 
munity and regard for the individual, toil and exhaustion being 



wholly unknown; when, throughout the longer, fuller and more 
active life which mankind will then be heir to, the minds of all will 
be more completely cultivated than those of the most gifted have 
ever been; when art naturally rises to higher and ever higher pitch 
of exquisite achievement due to a keener public conception of beauty 
and sculpture, painting, architecture, decoration, than the best of 
the Greeks themselves could realize, when all this is achieved, as 
achieved it assuredly will be within a calculable period, death itself 
will be nothing more than a sigh of satisfied content at the close of 
a charming and well ordered banquet of life. 

And then, may we not assume, some reincarnated Hyndman will 
proceed to the evolution of another revolution which will result in 
social chaos, and necessitate another ages-long human pilgrimage 
from the cave where dwelt the prehistoric man? We see nothing in 
the communist or socialist of today to justify the commitment to him 
of leadership in such a momentous enterprise. 



Statement of the Ownership, Management, Circulation, Etc. 

Required by the Act of Congress of August 24, 191; 

OF AMERICANA, published Quarterly at Somerville, New Jersey, for April 1st, 1921. 

City and State of New York, > 
County of New York, j ""' 

Before me, a Notary Public, in and for the State and county aforesaid, per- 
sonally appeared Marion L. Lewis, who, having been duly sworn according 
to law, deposes and says that he is the Manager of the American Historical Society, 
Inc., publisher of Americana, and that the following is, to the best of his knowledge and 
belief, a true statement of ownership, management, etc., of the aforesaid publication for 
the date shown in the above caption, required by the Act of August 24, 1912, embodied 
in section 443, Postal Laws and Regulations, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing editor, and 
business managers are: Publisher, The American Historical Society, Inc., Somerville, 
N. J., and 317 Broadway, New York City: Editor, Fenwick Y. Hedley, No. 317 Broad- 
way, New York City; Managing Editor, Marion L. Lewis. No. 317 Broadway, New York 
City; Business Manager, Marion L. Lewis, No. 317 Broadway, New York City. 

2: That the owners are: Benjamin F. Lewis, Sr., No. 908 Central avenue, Wil- 
mette, 111.; Marion L. Lewis, No. 317 Broadway, N. Y. ; Metcalf B. Hatch, Nutley, N. 
J. ; Ed Lewis, No. 2121 Foster avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Florence A. Kelsey, Great Bar- 
rington, Massachusetts ; Benjamin F. Lewis, Jr., No. 542 South Dearborn street, Chicago, 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders owning or 
holding 1 per cent, or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities are: 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of the owners, stock- 
holders, and security holders, if any, contain not only the list of stockholders and security 
holders as they appear upon the books of the company but also, in cases where the 
stockholder or security holder appears upon the books of the company as trustee or in any 
other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is 
acting, is given; also that the said two paragraphs contain statements embracing affiant's 
full knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and conditions under which stock- 
holders and security holders who do not appear upon the books of the company as 
trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity other than that of a bona fide owner; 
and this affiant has no reason to believe that any other person, association, or corporation 
has any interest direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other securities than as so 
stated by him. 

MARION L. LEWIS, Business Manager. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 1st day of April, 1921. 

(Seal). Notary Public of New York City. 

Commission expires March 30, 1923. 




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Named Mathew, Mark, Luke and John; also called "Harps of the Wind' 

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OCTOBER, 1921 

Nantucket — Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow 

By Amelia Day Campbell, New York City 

Author of "Myles Standish, Military Commander and Brave De- 
fender of the Plymouth Colony," "Alaska, the Land of Possi- 
bilities," etc. 

NCHOEED FAR out from the mainland of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, to which it belongs, with the 
waters of the Atlantic Ocean rolling up and breaking 
on the high cliffs of its southern and eastern shores, and 
Nantucket Sound separating it from other lands on the north, lies 
the romantic and historically famous little island of Nantucket. Its 
creation was vouched for by the Indians who were the first inhabi- 
tants, in their quaint legend so interestingly told by Eva C. G. Fol- 
ger in "The Glacier's Gift," that "Once upon a time there lived on 
the Atlantic coast a giant who used Cape Cod as his bed. One night, 
being restless, he tossed from side to side till his moccasins were 
filled with sand. This so enraged him that on arising in the morn- 
ing he flung the offending moccasins from his feet, one alighting to 
form Martha's Vineyard, while the other became the since famous 
island of Nantucket." This story no doubt originated with the 
early Indians because of the moccasin-like shape of the island. Im- 
agination pictures many forms from its peculiar shape — one of 
them a hammock swinging amidst the surrounding waters. 

The importance of its sixty square miles of territory is unequaled 
by any other such infinitesimal area in the world, and the glories of 
its past have been born, flourished for a time, and disappeared, to 
make way for another industry, or occupation, or religion, to con- 
tinue the epoch-making importance of this little "kingdom." Its 
isolation makes it select and secluded, and under the government of 



our country which gives protection to its inhabitants for very small 
returns, it flourishes in its self-pride and independence. At the same 
time, this isolation has bred a conservatism which makes its people 
slow to accept the advancement of an enlightened and progressive 
century. They are too far from the actualities of current happen- 
ings which revolutionize the status of everyday life and events, to 
realize the importance to themselves. They have, however, been 
very alert to their own local industrial possibilities, and the history 
of each important event is divided into an epoch of two hundred 
years. Unlike those that have gone, the epoch of today should en- 
dure for many centuries. 

The important activity of the Island in its epoch-making history 
today was undreamed of three centuries ago when it was inhabited 
first by the Eed Men, then by the English settlers who dwelt and 
worked with them and who supplanted the Indians entirely within 
the space of two hundred years. Then Nantucket became the abode 
of the Whaler; or, to be more accurate, the settlers became whalers, 
because that sporting occupation was revealed to them out of their 
neighboring and neighborly waters, and they made excellent use of 
their opportunity for two hundred years. A new religion known 
as Quakerism appeared among them, and was embraced by the ma- 
jority, only to become extinct within the space of two hundred years. 

It is as a summer resort that Nantucket is prospering today, and 
becoming quite as famous in that respect as she has been in agri- 
culture, in trade, and in religion; but it is a far cry from the day 
when Thomas Macy with his wife and five small children braved 
the waters of Massachusetts Bay, rounded Cape Cod into Nantucket 
Sound in an open boat, and reached the shores of Nantucket in 1659, 
to the present day when crowds of summer visitors arrive twice 
daily by the large and palatial steamers; and it is no uncommon oc- 
currence for a "birdman" to come sailing through the sky in his 
hydroplane, alight on the water and taxi to the beach, where he and 
his 'plane become the center of attraction. 

No longer ago than ]865, a Boston man advocated Nantucket as a 
health resort, and today thousands go there to enjoy its wonderful 
climate— not for health alone, but for the luxury of coolness, for the 
pleasure of exploring its quaint old English streets and lanes, to en- 
joy the walks across its moors, to behold the unusual sight of cran- 
berry bogs, and to indulge in recreation on the bathing beach. When 



visitors leave their comfortable hotels and boarding houses each 
morning and in a long procession of autos, horse-drawn surreys and 
pedestrians, at the fashionable hour for bathing gather at the beach, 
they do not know, unless they have "read up" in their guide books, 
that where the Nantucket Athletic Club stands, whose tennis courts 
are crowded both morning and afternoon with athletic youth, this 
entire water front was the scene of the whaling industry; that the 
bay now filled with pleasure craft was then full of the old-time sail- 
ing vessels; that the whale ships were arriving and departing week- 
ly ; that their outfitting and unloading required the labor of many 
white and Indian men; that try-works, whale wharfs, candle fac- 
tories, salt works, rope walks, and many other marine and seafaring 
industries, were in full sway. Or, as they listen to the band from 
Boston or Worcester as it plays on the beach while they disport 
themselves in their wonder-hued bathing suits in the water, sit 
around on the sand in the sunshine beneath flame-striped sun um- 
brellas, while they are sketched in groups, singly or en masse, by 
celebrated artists, or watch the bathers from the shaded porch of the 
comfortable pavillion, that it was Captain Timothy Folger, a Nan- 
tucket er, who first charted the Gulf Stream which was "discovered" 
during the whaling days, and that it is this wonderful Gulf Stream 
which makes the waters of the Sound average about 75 degrees, and 
the Nantucket shore one of the warmest bathing places on the New 
England coast. 

The devotees of the American vacation habit were not long in ap- 
preciating the advantages of Nantucket after its fame began to be 
known, though this habit could easily have been indulged in centu- 
ries before, for Crevecoeur says in his "Letters of an American 
Farmer" which were published in 1777 : "Singular as it may appear 
to you, there are but two medical professors on the island. 
Since the foundation of the town, no epidemical distempers have ap- 
peared, which at times cause such depopulation in other countries; 
many of them are extremely well acquainted with the Indian meth- 
ods of curing simple diseases, and practice them with success. You 
will hardly find anywhere a community composed of the same num- 
ber of individuals, possessing such uninterrupted health and exhibit- 
ing so many green old men who show their advanced age by the 
maturity of their wisdom, rather than by the wrinkles of their face." 

But there are many other reasons why Nantucket is beloved by all 



visitors, and why a new history of Nantucket is constantly being 
undertaken by writers, for its quaintness and difference from other 
places make them feel that they must tell others about it in their 
own way; while artists make it their mecca for the purpose of per- 
petuating' on canvas the things one can feel there as well as sec, for 
the inspiration of it all influences painter, poet, writer, and the dilet- 
tante as well. 

One of the first different objects one glimpses is the house-top 
fenced enclosure called "Widows' Walk" by some, and eventually 
one finds out that they were not always just ornamental as they 
seem to be at present, but that the return of the father or the son or 
husband from a two, three or four years whaling expedition was 
eagerly watched for from these "walks," and when the ship was 
still too far away to discern her name, and the carrier pigeon swiftly 
approached with the name tied to its foot or beneath its wing, how 
readily the captain's good wife paid her dollar or the whaler's wife 
a lesser amount to the small boy who was enterprising enough to be 
the first to catch the pigeon and fly with the news to those interested. 
But many times the watchers waited in vain for their men, for 
among the tragedies of the sea were the loss of the Essex, which was 
sunk by a whale and all on board lost; the mutiny on board the 
Globe, when lives were sacrificed; the many ships captured during 
the Revolutionary War, the French and Indian War, and during the 
difficulties between France and England, when crews were taken 
prisoners and many times only a few ever returned. A "walk" was 
also a "weather bureau," for Douglas-Lithgow in his "History of 
Nantucket" quotes from a periodical over a hundred years old: 
"Every house in this seafaring place has a look-out upon the roof, 
or a vane at the gable end, to see what ships have arrived from sea, 
or whether the wind is fair for the packets." 

There is the keenest anticipation in starting out for a walk, as to 
where the side-turning into street or lane will lead. It may stop at 
the loveliest old colonial doorway with its peculiar fan-like transom 
which is a frequent theme for the poet and the artist, or it may turn 
into another lane through the fences of which one glimpses the most 
wonderful gardens of hollyhock or hydrangea rows ; or it may lead 
out to a street built up with comfortable homes, or to the old 
"Horseshoe House"; or one may behold the splendor of a flaming 
sunset through the four large buttonwood trees standing like senti- 


i i 




' ' 



nels on the hill. The uncertainty of just where one is going, for it 
will not. be straight ahead by any means, is fascinating; and to try 
to retrace one's meanderings the next day is equally fascinating — 
and impossible. 

The streets and lanes have characteristic names, and apparently 
nothing in nature has been slighted, whether flower, tree, season, 
fish or animal, for some of them are Lily street, Ash lane, Black 
Horse lane, Candle street, Cod lane, Moose lane, Silver lane, Whale 
street, Prison lane, Coffin court and Beaver lane, which were given 
these names in far-off 1797. The lanes are very narrow, some with 
cobbled paving, others just mother earth, while the more pretentious 
streets have up-to-date asphalt covering. However, the principal 
thoroughfare, Main street, has the jolting, restless cobblestones in 
unusually uncomfortable irregularity. Sitting here on a bench of a 
summer evening and listening to the band as it pours forth its jazz 
and march melodies from the stand temporarily erected for the sum- 
mer, right in the middle of Main street, it is hard to realize that a 
whipping post stood at Gardner and Main streets from 1790 to 1800, 
and that "Polly Walmsley was publicly whipped, her outstretched 
arms tied to the back of a cart"; or that in 1679 "Katherine Innis 
was fined to be whipped fifteen stripes or to pay 5 pounds. ' ' 

In its quaint individuality one concludes that Nantucket is typi- 
cally English, for it has retained much of the "atmosphere" of those 
early English colonists, and it was no doubt with reluctance that 
their descendants decided to change their mode of industry which 
has embraced so many sorts through succeeding generations — from 
agriculture, sheep raising, whaling, and manufacturing, all of which 
have had their day and disappeared — to figuratively turn over the 
keys of their little island which Daniel Webster called "The Un- 
known City in the Ocean," to strangers; but they have done it in a 
thorough, businesslike, hospitable way, as was to be expected of a 
race of whom Crevecoeur wrote: "Idleness is the most heinous sin 
that can be committed in Nantucket. An idle man would soon be 
pointed out as an object of compassion, for idleness is considered as 
another word for want and hunger. This principle is so thoroughly 
well understood and is become so universal, that they are never 

One must roam over the island and study it to appreciate that 
there is a reason for the existence of the unusual, wherever found. 



For instance, there are no native trees on the island except dwarf 
pine and scrub oak, but there are beautiful old elm trees on Main 
street which were set out by Charles and Henry Coffin; and the wil- 
lows were grown from slips taken from Napoleon's grave at St. 
Helena and brought to the island on the whale ship Napoleon. Orig- 
inally Nantucket is believed to have been thickly wooded with oak, 
walnut, beech, pine and cedar, but as far back as 1780 they had dis- 
appeared, having been cut down for building and fuel. So all trees 
found there today have been planted by those who loved trees and 
believed with Joyce Kilmer, "I think that I shall never see a poem 
as lovely as a tree," and passed that love on to posterity which en- 
joys them today. 

The windmill on the hill, with its view of bay and ocean, is the 
last of the tide and wind mills which were so important in other 
days in grinding the grain of the island, for in the beginning of 
things — that is, with the advent of the first settlers who eventually 
supplanted the Indians — every man wanted to be a land owner, and 
Tristram Folger was determined in those early days of 1670 or 
thereabouts to form a landed aristocracy, no one to be allowed to 
vote except landowners, and for many years he was the ruling power 
of the island, for he was shrewd, plausible, convincing, and things 
went about as he said. But there were others who did not own so 
much land as those Avho controlled the original twenty-seven shares 
as well as a portion of the sheep-commons in proportion to his other 
holdings, and who still thought they had rights even though they 
were but the fishermen and artisans of every sort; and so politics 
gained a foothold and two parties were formed. John Gardner had 
been invited to come to the island and "set us the trade of taking 
codfish," and on agreeing to stay three years was given one-half 
share of land. He became the leader of the Liberals, and eventually 
supplanted Tristram Coffin, who desired that "all things remain as 
they were," while Gardner was for "equal rights for all." He was 
a genius in his administration of affairs, and the most capable man 
among the settlers. The result was inevitable that these two strong 
and g^eat men should be enemies, but another of Gardner's superior 
qualities was the magnanimity which he showed to Tristram and 
which eventually made them friends as long as they lived. To make 
the reconciliation complete, Tristram's grandson, Jethro Coffin, 
married John Gardner's daughter Mary. The house and estate 






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C^RtefiTlii-lhTniriW. Vr W.iiwWm.U.' i».-r..fc5»Ji.irfoi» 

'■ r l*- > »-i-V---. t J>' J; L&Q& 

Oldest in Nantucket Island; built 1686 


which the two parents provided for them on the occasion of their 
wedding in 16S6, the land being furnished by Peter Coffin and the 
house by Gardner, is today the oldest house in Nantucket, and is 
preserved and exhibited to a host of daily visitors by a descendant 
of this famous couple. Built into corners of the rooms are several 
"ship's knees." In the bridal chamber on the second floor can be 
seen today the gravestone of John Gardner which marked his grave 
for one hundred and seventy-five years, and which has been put 
there for preservation. 

The original white settlers were by no means to be considered as 
monarchs, — there were the Indians to be reckoned with, — for when 
Bartholomew Gosnold landed at Sankaty Head in 1602 there were 
about fifteen hundred Indians on the island. They owned the land 
by right of possession, although England claimed the island because 
of an expedition of the Cabots in 1497, when they sailed from Flor- 
ida to Labrador, claiming all lands along their route. When the 
first settler, Thomas Mayhew, arrived in 16-11, he was eventually 
obliged to treat with the agent of the Earl of Sterling, from whom 
he bought the island for thirty pounds and two beaver hats — one for 
himself and one for his wife. One assumes that the only reason the 
fashion of the beaver hat variety could possibly have had in that day 
was to crown "their majesties," in order to awe the unclothed na- 
ture-garbed Indians, as supposed or imagined crowns on the heads 
of royalty do with the rank and file of their subjects to this day. 

WTien Nantucket was owned by New York, Governor Lovelace 
stipulated that any lands acquired by the settlers must first be 
bought from the Indians ; that is, the Indians must be recompensed 
for the lands they claimed. However, the poor ignorant Indian was 
a peculiar factor to deal with, for while the settlers no doubt drove 
good bargains for themselves, yet they were just and kind to the 
Indians. But the Indians never did understand that the land be- 
longed to them no longer after it was sold. They still believed, as 
they have in all lands which they have inhabited, that the fish in the 
streams, the animals in the woods and the products of the fields, 
were theirs for the taking. In many cases the new owners of the 
soil permitted the Indians who were heads of families to continue to 
till the lands for their living. 

However, the red and white men worked together harmoniously 
in fishing and in planting, each learning something from the other, 



both races finding absorbing occupation in trying' to wrest an honest 
living from the barren soil and the far less barren waters bordering 
its shores. All went well with both until in 1G83 Stephen Hussey 
smuggled rum into the island. From then on, the doom of the Red 
Man was sealed. These impulsive childlike creatures had no self- 
control— nothing but primeval instincts to get what they wanted, 
"by hook or crook." Even though they bartered their crops, their 
lands, their stock, they would have rum at whatever the cost. To 
make matters worse, they were paid in rum for their services on the 
fishing boats, and it was no uncommon sight to find a great deal of 
drunkenness around the docks when the boats came in, and when 
they were drunk they committed petty crimes for which they were 
tried and many times given very harsh sentences. The whipping 
post, pillories, and even branding the flesh, were some of the meth- 
ods of punishment. A negro preacher for stealing a barrel of rum 
and seven gallons of oil was sentenced to pay a round sum of money 
or serve one of the settlers four years. But these punishments did 
very little good. And thus the Red Race began to deteriorate, de- 
generate, and die out. Then an epidemic of smallpox broke out. 
which did not affect the white people, but more than half of the In- 
dians died, even though faithfully nursed by the settlers. Finally, 
with the death in 1855 of Dorcas Honorable, the grandfather of 
Tashama, "the last and greatest of the Indian sachems," this noble 
race became extinct in Nantucket. The Indians had played a promi- 
nent and important part in the early history, two great Indian 
sachems, Wanackmamack and Nickernoose, proving loyal friends to 
the settlers. They were never really savages, for only one man was 
ever murdered by an Indian. Douglas-Lithgow pays a fine tribute 
to them in his "History of Nantucket" when he says: 

"We talk glibly and deprecatingly of the poor Indian as 'mere 
savage,' but the annals of American history afford but few in- 
stances of really nobler men than Massasoit, Passaconoway, Samo- 
set and Wanackmamack, the controlling head sachems of Nantucket. 
Had it not been for the high personal qualities of such men, New 
England might not have occupied today the proud position which 
she now holds among the United States. Unfortunately, civilization 
has too often brought in its wake habits and customs which have 
ever proved degenerative, if not destructive, to the uncivilized races 
of the earth, and so they proved to the Indians, who were sober, in- 
dustrious and happy before the settlers introduced among them the 



iniquitous fire-water, to the abuse of which they fell a prey. Acting 
under this pernicious influence, their primitive instincts were 
aroused within them, and never afterwards were they the same peo- 
ple. * * When all that can be said against the Indian has 
been spoken, it must be conceded that they embodied a pure and 
lofty patriotism, for which they fought and died like men and true 
patriots, and although they had to gradually yield up their posses- 
sions and their homes in the land they loved, and to recede and dis- 
appear before the advancing wave of civilization, yet, as De Forest 
says 'we must drop a tear over the grave of the race which has per- 
ished, and regret that civilization and Christianity have ever accom- 
plished so little for its amelioration.' " 

Whales were probably caught by the Indians long before the white 
people settled in Nantucket, but it was not until several years later 
that the routine of farming was to be revolutionized by whaling. Ag- 
riculture was of prime importance, and the grazing fields, which 
were held in common, were kept fertile by their laws, for history rec- 
ords that "farmers were required to sow two bushels of hay seed 
upon every halfe aker by end of March or pay a penalty of 5 shillings 
each." Thus their flocks grew fat and increased until eventually 
there were fifteen thousand sheep grazing on the commons. As there 
were fourteen ponds, some salt and others fresh water, they formed 
boundaries to different tracts and kept the flocks and cattle within 
bounds. Shearing days, when the sheep were washed in the pond 
and sheared in the pen by the men, while the women provided re- 
freshments and cheer for them, soon became famous annual gather- 
ing occasions not unlike a county fair. The fakirs were there with 
their wares, and the men and boys home from fishing and whaling 
expeditions, with plenty of money in their pockets, made it an occa- 
sion to spend it, though we cannot imagine their spending "liber- 
ally," for thrift and not expenditure is an inborn characteristic of 
the New Englander, which originated with those predecessors of the 
Nantucketers in New England by thirty years — the Pilgrim Fathers. 
However, the girls were pleased with even "a knot of blue ribbon to 
tie up their bonnie brown hair," and best of all, it was a day of re- 
unions, and greatly prized and looked forward to because so rare, 
as they were usually too busy trying to make a living from the soil 
and the sea to support their large families to indulge in frequent 

The young people married early in life and raised families of ten, 



twelve and even fourteen children, and today the descendants of 
those early settlers are scattered throughout the United States in 
every State in the Union, while the present inhabitants of Nantucket 
prove by their names that many descendants have remained there, 
for some of the "first families" are the Starbucks, Folgers, Coffins, 
Husseys, Gardners and Macys. These names and many others were 
possessed by the pioneers, who made up a working community, for 
men of trades were induced for shares and fractions of shares to 
assist in forming a settlement that would be independent of the out- 
side world, which was very necessary, as they were far away from 
the mainland, with almost no means of reaching it at that time. The 
original nine men who were joint owners with Thomas Mayhew were 
Tristram Coffin, Christopher Hussey, Richard Swayne, Thomas 
Bernard, Peter Coffin, Stephen Greenleaf, John Swayne, Thomas 
Macy and Robert Pike. These men each received one share of land, 
and each was allowed to choose a partner who was given one share. 
To induce artisans and tradesmen to cast in their lot on this isolated 
island, one-half of one share was given to ten other men to render 
services in their various callings, which proved them shrewd, far- 
sighted and businesslike, and was the proper way to colonize a wild- 
erness. Thomas Macy was a weaver and merchant, John Salvage a 
cooper, Eleazer Folger a smith, Nathaniel Holland a tailor, Joseph 
Gardner a shoemaker; William Worth, Joseph Coleman and Rich- 
ard Gardner were seamen. Peter Folger was an important member 
of the settlement, for he had been a teacher of the Indians on Mar- 
tha's Vineyard Island, and was able to interpret their language. He 
could also measure and survey land, and at different times per- 
formed the duties of miller, blacksmith and clerk. His versatile gifts 
were destined to survive, for the genius Benjamin Franklin, whom 
the world honors as journalist, statesman, diplomat and philoso- 
pher, and whose name is famed in history, was his grandson, being 
the youngest of Abiah Folger Franklin's seventeen children. Thus 
the little island out to sea had the nucleus of an independent, self- 
sustaining kingdom in the skill and variety of trades of its inhabi- 
tants, each of whom in his strife for a livelihood in an undeveloped 
country was bound to produce results. The women here, as in every 
country of every civilized government, did their very large share. 
They reared large families of children, they spun the wool for their 
own garments, and no doubt did much of the weaving too. Writers 

iia^Ai^i^«ii^li<~A<uii_,i-_ J .,:.*.,. -_~,~_. -..^■.MH.u.imiiiM 



of today tell us that there are twelve thousand descendants of Tris- 
tram Coffin that can be authentically traced. 

One day in the year 1672 a whale drifted into the bay, and, with 
the help of the Indians and their own ingenuity, the settlers succeed- 
ed after three days in making a harpoon and capturing it. After 
trying out the blubber and finding it marketable, they began to see 
visions of a livelihood in whale fishing, so they divided the south 
shore into four parts, each having six men and a lookout from which 
one of them sighted the whale, and then all put out in a boat to catch 
him. They prospered in this, secured other boats, established try- 
works, and very soon it became a popular and lucrative business. 
Alexander Hussey and his crew were one day blown out into deeper 
and farther-away waters, and their boat ran into a school of sperm 
whales. He succeeded in bringing one of them to shore, and from 
that time on sperm whales became the object of their fishing expe- 
ditions, and a business was begun which was so far-reaching in its 
commercial value and extent that even their wildest dreams of 
avarice could not have imagined it. The "right" whale which they 
had first captured was the possessor of much whalebone, but at that 
time they did not know of its uses and values. However, the sperm 
whale gave them such quantities of oil that their fortunes were 
made, for the whole world required the oil for lighting purposes, 
and nowhere were men so skillful in whale-catching as the white 
men and Indians of Nantucket Island. 

After one hundred years of this prosperity, all was changed by 
the Revolutionary War. During the eight years of the war's dura- 
tion the people were prisoners on their island. Many of those who 
ventured forth on fishing expeditions were captured by the British 
whose ships infested the waters, and the same danger menaced them 
if they attempted to secure supplies from the mainland. The colo- 
nial government was powerless to protect them in their unfortified 
exposed position. The success of whaling and the extremely poor 
soil for farming had of course thrown most of their endeavors 
toward the former occupation, therefore they were unprovided with 
provisions, grains and other food stuffs which they had been import- 
ing as needed. It was not long before their supplies were very low, 
and those who had money found it fast dwindling and they faced 
poverty; while those without money, and their means of livelihood 
taken from them, literally saw starvation before them. As in our 



Great World War, the women were active in relieving suffering in 
every way possible with their limited means. They spun the wool 
from the sheep and made clothing, collected funds for the destitute, 
and everyone who had anything shared it with those who had 
nothing. When matters seemed as bad as they could possibly be, 
four British boats entered the harbor and the crews sacked their 
storehouse, where a quantity of grain was stored for food and seed 
purposes. After that they lived in constant terror of renewed raids. 
The colonial government refused to pay any attention to appeal 
after appeal for assistance and protection, for they had voted to 
remain neutral to both sides. By descent they were British, and 
their sympathies were inclined to be on that side, but they were sub- 
jects of the colonies refusing to take part in their struggle. Each 
side, therefore, was suspicious of them and accused them of giving 
aid to the other, whereas they were destitute themselves. 

The majority of the citizens were Quakers who had "conscien- 
tious objections" against fighting, and not only would not assist 
their country, but would not even provide fortifications for the pro- 
tection of their little island "kingdom". Indirectly they were 
vitally concerned in the cause of the war, for in 1773 three ships, the 
Dartmouth, Eleanor and Beaver, which had taken cargoes of oil to 
London from Nantucket, came back laden with tea for Boston, and 
it was on their arrival in Boston Harbor that the historical "Boston 
Tea Party" took place. The Beaver was owned in Nantucket, and 
the captain, Hezelriah Coffin, was a Nantucketer. Once again the 
Beaver was prominent in history, for hers was the honor of being 
the first vessel to fly the American flag in a British port, which 
occurred on February 3rd, 1783. 

When the war finally ended, the Nantucketers had lost so many 
boats through capture, those in port had become out of repair 
through long disuse, and they were financially unable to restore and 
rent them, that it took them a long time to recover. The old men 
were too weak to work the farms, and the young men would not, so 
gradually whaling, the occupation they had learned to know so well 
and loved the best, was resumed. They ventured forth into other 
waters where prosperity smiled once more, for whales were plentiful 
after their long years of being unmolested, and within ten years 
business was thriving. The whalers swept the Seven Seas, finding 



excellent "grounds" off the coasts of Bahamas, Labrador, Brazil 
and Guinea, and the fame of this little island became worldwide. 

Then came the war of 1812, and the conditions of the Revolution 
were repeated, but not for so long a period, and again they recover- 
ed. They now invaded the waters of the Pacific and found whaling 
there very lucrative, especially in the waters around Japan. They 
discovered and named many islands in the Pacific. These voyages 
took long months and years, sometimes even four years, so that they 
spent only a few weeks or months at home. They never returned 
without a full cargo, which consisted of as many hogsheads as the 
ship would hold. Boys of fourteen shipped on these whalers, 
having already spent two years learning to be coopers, and men of 
all ages up to forty, but after that age they were considered unable 
to endure the rigors and hardships connected with the long and ar- 
duous voyages. However, after a few voyages the captains were 
able to retire with sufficient to be considered very wealthy in those 
days, and the young men made enough to be able to command their 
own ship after a couple of voyages, for each of the officers and crew 
received a share of the profits of the cargo in proportion to the im- 
portance of their position and earning capacity, and this plan work- 
ed satisfactorily to all concerned. An example of the value of a 
cargo will be seen by the following historical note: "April 19, 1830, 
the ship Sarali, Capt. Frederick Arthur, returned from a three 
years' voyage with 3497 barrels of sperm oil valued at $98,000, which 
was one of the greatest quantities ever brought in." 

In 1843 whaling began to decline, for not only were the whales 
getting scarce, but whale oil was being superceded by petroleum, 
which was cheaper and more pleasant to use for lighting than sperm 
oil, and it was being found in many countries and in everincreasing 
quantities. In 1846 a fire which wiped out one-third of the town of 
Nantucket and destroyed much of the whaling property, was still 
another obstacle, but the people kept on in a small way until 1869, 
when the last whaling boat sailed from Nantucket, and thus was 
concluded an industry which had endured on the island for two hun- 
dred years. 

The first established religions in Nantucket were Presbyterian and 
Baptist, but at an early date Quakerism became identified there and 
flourished, or at least abided, for two hundred years. This religion 



was founded by John Fox in England, who on one occasion when he 
appeared before the magistrates told them to "quake at the name of 
the Lord", and the magistrates thereupon called the society that 
Fox represented "Quakers". Fox came to America in 1647, when 
it was a comparative wilderness, and was persecuted and imprison- 
ed, as were also his converts. In 1650 three men and a woman were 
hanged for being Quakers. In 1656 two women were imprisoned as 
witches, and afterwards banished. In 1657 Massachusetts passed a 
law prohibiting the entertaining of Quakers, and Thomas Macy of 
Salisbury was fined thirty shillings for so doing, although he ex- 
plained in a letter to the court that the two men were in his house 
less than three-quarters of an hour, that they said little, and that he 
did not know for sure that they were Quakers. It has been said 
that it was on account of this fine that he emigrated to Nantucket. 

The first Quaker preacher, with other "Friends", visited Nan- 
tucket in 1700, and, while not persecuted, he met with a good deal of 
opposition at first. Gradually his religion, which believed in the 
"Inner Light" and that even though in the world one should not be 
of it, was accepted by a few people, one of the first being Mrs. Mary 
Starbuck, known in history as "The Great Woman", who at the age 
of fifty-six became one of the preachers and its most ardent support- 
er. Her influence made a host of converts to the faith, among them 
her ten children, and at its height more than half of the population 
of Nantucket was Quaker. It was a popular religion, because easy 
to join and cost very little. It grew in popularity for a century, 
when it began to lose its hold on the people because of its severity 
and despotism. It allowed no pleasures or recreations to its mem- 
bers, no music in the home, and even dictated what people should 
wear and whom they should marry; thus the young people were 
driven to seek amusement in the streets, at the wharfs and in public 
places, which was far from being a good influence, and eventually 
they broke away from the discipline of Quakerism. For trivial 
faults they were dismissed from the church. "Deborah Smith was 
set aside because she did not use the 'thee and thou' of the Quakers, 
and it was reported that she said she did not think she ever should. 
Another was disowned for keeping a spinnet, and a violin to play 
upon. Dances, picnic and moonlight excursions for pleasure were 
forbidden," — and I know of no more wonderful place to enjoy the 
witching moonlight than when it makes a pathwav of gold on the 



water and lights up the cliffs and moors of Nantucket. Still another 
lassie was disowned for tying her hair in curls. A man was dis- 
owned for apprenticing his son to a man not a Quaker. It must be 
said in their favor that their moral and righteous lives have been a 
power for good on modern civilization, but they carried it too far 
and with too much severity, and. society would not and could not ac- 
cept its unnaturalness. 

At one time, when Quakerism was at its zenith, the Quakers con- 
trolled the politics of the island and dominated and dictated its 
government. When the Revolutionary "War broke out, their policy 
was ''submission and patience." They would not fight, neither 
would they pay any part of the cost of maintaining an army to de- 
fend their country. This failure to live up to their obligations as 
citizens was one of the chief factors in the decline of Quakerism, for 
it was difficult to keep the younger generation neutral when their 
country was calling; but they had been so schooled in discipline and 
obedience that they submitted for the time being, only to break away 
eventually, for, when the Civil Yv 7 ar broke out, Nantucket provided 
more than her quota of men for both army and navy, and her loyalty 
in the Great World War was unquestioned. She subscribed liberally 
to every Liberty Loan, and her sons were represented in army, navy, 
aviation and coast guard. It still remains for the history to be writ- 
ten of the wonderful work of feeding Central Europe during the 
World War which was so humanely carried out by the Philadelphia 
Quakers. They were "conscientious objectors" in warfare, but an- 
gels of mercy in sustaining life. But this is a digression from the 
history of the Nantucket Quakers. 

When whaling declined, there was a grand rush to other States, 
some settling in New York, the Carolinas, Maine, some even going to 
France. In 1849 the gold fever in California attracted large num- 
bers. Naturally this exodus thinned the ranks of the Quakers, and 
by 1900, two hundred years after the first preacher arrived, there 
was not one Quaker left in Nantucket. No honor can be paid at 
their graves except in history and in the hearts of those who have 
blood-cause to remember them as ancestors, for in their simplicity 
they placed neither stone nor flower to mark the graves of their 
dead. Douglas-Lithgow writes: "In the last burying place of the 
Quakers, at the corner of upper Main and Saratoga streets, with the 
exception of a few small markers in the Hicksite section, there is 



nothing to indicate that beneath the weedy grass of the enclosure 
between nine and ten thousand human bodies are buried, without 
even a flower to mark any of their graves, and yet there is none of 
the old Nantucket families whose ancestors are not sleeping their 
last sleep in this neglected field." 

Memory's shrine has been strengthened in history's page for at 
least one of the Nantucket Quakers in the person of Mrs. Lucretia 
Coffin Mott, who was born in Nantucket, January 3rd, 1793. She has 
the distinction of being the first advocate of Women's Eights, and 
became an active leader in this movement. This came about be- 
cause of the fact that when she was sent to London in 1S40 to the 
World Convention as a delegate of the American Anti-Slavery So- 
ciety, she was not allowed to take her seat as a delegate, as all women 
were excluded. 

It was during the early years of Quakerism that a sort of curfew 
was established called "Constable's Watch in the night season for 
suppressing disorders and breaches of the peace." This was in 
1723, that the town, determined to curb the night carousals of In- 
dians, negroes and undesirable persons, so ordered that anyone 
found on the wharf or streets after nine o'clock should be arrested. 
This worked for a time only, and eventually sixteen men were ap- 
pointed as night watch, and it was voted in town meeting that "the 
1G watchmen shall frequently give the time of night and looks of the 
weather, and other remarks worthy of notice, in a clear and audible 
voice." This was the beginning of the Town Crier system which 
flourished for nearly two hundred years. One of the early records 
of an event or ruling proclaimed by the public crier was that he 
"went about the island saying that if the Nanespepo Indian wife 
did not return to her husband within six weeks, Nanespepo is freed 
from her," and thus was divorce quick and easy. 

As the years went on and lawlessness decreased as laws were up- 
held, the Constable's Watch disappeared, but the Town Crier re- 
mained as a disseminator of news, and finally as a picturesque fea- 
ture of quaint Nantucket right up to our own day. Eventually there 
was but one Town Crier, the last being William D. Clark, who "from 
his watch tower signalled the approach of the Nantucket steamboat 
by toots on horn, from the windows at each point of the compass of 
the Unitarian church tower. In the south tower, watch was kept for 
fires and signalled by lanterns," and this custom was continued until 




J.— ~_.>-li wa-ft 


■ . 

m *" '■-■ - <) I 



electric fire alarms were installed in 1907. In "Nooks and Corners 
of Massachusetts," Drake says of "Billy Clark," who died in 
1909 after forty years of cheerful, efficient service: 

"This functionary I met, swelling with importance, but a trifle 
blown from the frequent sounding of his clarion, to wit, a japanned 
fish horn. Wherever I wandered in my rambles he was sure to turn 
the corner just ahead of me, or to spring from covert of some blind 
alley. He was one of those who, Macy says, knew all the other in- 
habitants of the island; me he knew as a stranger. He stopped 
short. First he wound a terrible blast of his horn : Toot, t-o-o-t ! ! It 
echoed down the street like a discordant braying of a donkey. This 
he followed with the lusty ringing of a large dinner bell, peal on peal, 
until I was ready to exclaim with the Moor, 'silence that dreadful 
bell, it frights the isle from her propriety'! Then placing the fish- 
horn under his arm and taking the bell by the tongue, he delivered 
himself of his formula: 'Two boats a day! Burgess's meat auction 
this evening! Corned-beef! Boston Theatre, positively last night 
this evening!' " 

Another favorite way of spreading the news was through the me- 
dium of the slate in the "Captain's room at Botch's warehouse." 
Anyone who had a bit of news felt it a duty to get it written on that 
slate, when it rapidly became public property through the "old 
salts" who gathered there each day to re-live the old times in retro- 

During the entire history of the island, the Nantucketers have been 
followers of Tristram Collin's motto to "let all things remain as 
they were," and so devoted were they to these quaint means of cir- 
culating the news that when a newspaper was first "tried out" it 
could not exist, for they would have very little to do with it ; but the 
"man with a message," as one might call the newspaper editor, was 
determined that Nantucket needed and should have a newspaper, 
and one attempt after another was tried, some with partial success, 
until finally two of them consolidated and today the "Nantucket Mir- 
ror and Inquirer" has a pretty fair circulation, especially with the 
summer visitors. 

Every innovation along up-to-date lines has been fought tena- 
ciously. The waterwoi'ks, which replaced the town pump, when sug- 
gested and worked out by Moses Joy, Jr., a Nantncketer, was bit- 
terly opposed, partly because they said it could not be done, "for 
whoever heard of water running up hill," but probably the main 



reason was that they knew it would increase taxation. The sewage 
system was likewise bitterly opposed, but finally they gave in, for it 
became imperative to convert the island into a sanitary place by 
clearing the water front of all relics of the odoriferous whale, and 
by having proper water and sewage facilities, if the ' ' summer board- 
er" was to be invited to enjoy their hospitality. Likewise they op- 
posed the enterprise of two boats a day, but in time were convinced 
that this, too, was for the best interests of the island, for this was 
an important concession if they would entice the stranger to their 

Transportation on the island has not been settled so amicably, 
however, for history shows that it has been the subject of one long 
fight against advancement since the day of the "single-horse carts" 
to the advent of the automobile. Crevecoeur says in his "Letters of 
an American Farmer" that: 

"A few years ago two single-horse chairs were imported from 
Boston, to the great offense of these prudent citizens; nothing ap- 
peared to them more culpable than the use of such gaudy painted 
vehicles, in contempt of the more useful and more simple single- 
horse cart of their fathers. This piece of extravagance almost 
caused a schism and set every tongue a-going; some predicted the 
approaching ruin of these families that imported them; never since 
the foundation of the town had there happened anything which so 
much alarmed this primitive community. One of the possessors of 
these profane chairs, filled with repentance, wisely sent it back to 
the continent. The other, more obstinate, persisted in the use of his 
chair until by degrees they became more reconciled to it; though I 
observed that the wealthiest and the most respectable people still go 
to meeting or to their farms in a single-horse cart with a decent awn- 
ing fixed over it." 

Railroads have been established on different parts of the island, 
only to endure for a short season and then disappear. A street car 
line in the village was in operation for a time, but for lack of patron- 
age that, too, failed. In 1869 there was a fad for riding velocipedes. 
The most violent war was waged against the automobile, resulting 
in much bitter feeling, and eventually a law was passed by the State 
excluding it from the town limits. Mr. Clinton Folger, who brought 
the first automobile to the island, was not to be thwarted in his de- 
termination to carry the mail between 'Sconset and Nantucket in an 
auto, and the day he brought his car from the boat the streets were 



lined with indignant people almost ready to mob him and his auto. 
He carried the mail for a few trips, and then the law was passed 
which stopped him. However, he cleverly got around it by hitching 
a horse to his automobile until he reached the city limits on his way 
to 'Sconset, then unhitched the horse, started the engine, and deliv- 
ered his mail and carried along any passengers who desired to make 
the trip. On the return trip, when reaching the city limits mile- 
stone, the power was shut off, the "horse" power attached, and he 
drove his auto into town. This continued for several months, until 
the law was revised to cover the technicality, and he had to abandon 
the use of his automobile. Very soon, however, there were others 
who wanted to use automobiles, and summer visitors wanted to bring 
theirs along, so it was voted on again in town meeting, but so bitter 
was the opposition still, that those who were for their admission did 
not dare admit it, and the Australian ballot was resorted to so that 
no one knew how anyone else voted. The majority vote was for the 
admission of the automobile. It must be admitted in all fairness, 
however, that the quaintness of Nantucket would have been better 
served by excluding them, although they are a source of convenience 
and delight to the summer people who take such enjoyment in trips 
lengthwise and across the moors and cranberry bogs of the island 
to Sankaty Head Light, Tom Never 's Head, and the towns bearing 
Indian names which save from oblivion the memory of this lost race. 
Therefore Wannacomet, Muskeget, Madaket, Quidnet, Polpis and 
Wauwinet must be explored to see what mystery, if any, attaches to 
the name. The law which permitted the resumption of auto mail de- 
livery to the 'Sconset postoffice has revolutionized the conditions 
and added to the comfort and fame of this little "patchwork village" 
since those days when the postoffice was established in 1872, when in 
November of that year Miss Love Baxter was engaged as postmis- 
tress at the magnificent salary of $12 per year, and her father, Cap- 
tain Em. Baxter, received $8 per year for carrying the mail. 

Nantucket of today is taking time to appreciate her history, for 
her perspective of past events is becoming far enough distant for 
her to see more clearly, and the strangers in search for romance 
and adventure are helping by their appreciation of the collections of 
ancient relics which occupies one of the former Quaker churches, and 
where are to be found the jaw of the largest whale ever caught ; the 
old fire buckets, each bearing the name of the volunteer fireman who 



always carried it when a fire broke out; pictures of the full-rigged 
sailing ships and excellent wood models of them; also oil paintings 
of their famous ancestors, and a host of interesting objects. But the 
thought occurred to me, as I examined them, how little there was to 
show of their visits to all countries of the world during whaling 
days, and how great was their integrity, for of course they would 
take nothing that did not belong to them, and would probably accept 
no gifts from these strange peoples; and, on the other hand, their 
money was too precious and hardly earned to barter it for spices 
from the Orient, silks from Japan, or ivories from Alaska. And so 
their exhibit contains nothing of these foreign countries. 

Historic pride is also shown in the preservation of the house of 
their celebrated daughter, Maria Mitchell, and building the observa- 
tory to house the fine telescope which was presented to her by Vas- 
sar College. In 1847 she discovered the comet which bears her name 
and for which she received a medal from the King of Denmark. In 
1848 she was elected an honorary member of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, and was the first woman to receive this honor. 
In 1865 she was appointed professor of astronomy and director of 
the Observatory at Vassar College, and history records that she was 
an inspiring and original teacher; also a firm believer in Woman 
Suffrage. For many years she was president of the American As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Women. 

The world has been enriched by the genius of many Nantuckers, 
and her sons and daughters are to be found in all parts of the globe. 
Their splendid qualities of religion, morality, selfrespecting pride, 
New England thrift, and even their conservatism, have helped to 
leaven the character of all communities where they abide. 

No one can prognosticate the tomorrow of Nantucket, but it is 
safe to assume that in no way will her importance to the world in 
the past be sufficient glory for the future. At present over ten thou- 
sand visitors are receiving of her hospitality annually. Perhaps 
through some of them a great future for her will unfold and de- 




"'■'■ '■j£&ifefc' 











American Magazines, Past and Present 

By Charles A. Ingraham, Cambridge, New York 

ENJAMIN FRANKLIN, among many other distinctions, 

has that of having originated in Philadelphia in 1741 

the first American magazine ; it was a monthly and was 

U called "The General Magazine and Historical Chron- 

icle," and ran for six months, when it ceased to exist. Though the 
first number of "Bradford's Magazine," Philadelphia, appeared a 
few days earlier, the idea had been borrowed from Franklin. From 
this time on for a century and more, magazines came and went, 
nearly all of them having but a brief period of life, while men of 
real genius were ever ready to immolate themselves on the altar of 
the republic of letters, to heroically devote their lives and substance 
to the hopeless enterprise of maintaining a periodical devoted to 
"polite literature." Those old-time magazines have an antique at- 
mosphere and appearance when compared with those of the day. 
Before me is a bound volume of "The New York Mirror" of 1834, 
a weekly, and "devoted to literature and the line arts," its editors 
being George P. Morris, Theodore S. Fay and Nathaniel P. Willis, 
all distinguished writers in their generation. "The Mirror" has 
eight quarto pages, no advertisements, and has songs with accom- 
paniments, or instrumental piano pieces, in each issue; a few beau- 
tiful full-page steel plate engravings adorn the volume, and an excel- 
lent selection of prose and poetry appears in its pages. The practi- 
cal and commercial phases are not in evidence ; politics receives lit- 
tle or no consideration, while fiction and a high class of articles pre- 
dominate, with the travel letters of Fay and AVillis as conspicuous 
features. Though this old periodical has a somewhat tame and con- 
servative spirit in comparison with our present up-to-date and en- 
terprising magazines, it commands respect for its calm and cultured 
management and for the air of refinement and amiable scholarship 
which pervade its columns, characteristics which, though they 
brought no reward of fortune to the proprietors, were yet an ele- 



rating influence in their day, and well appreciated, as this beautiful- 
ly bound and carefully preserved volume attests. 

In the old days of the newspaper and magazine, talented writers 
sought editorial chairs that they might have widely-spread exem- 
plars of their ideas, and thus periodical literature was then of a 
more individualized, pronounced and forward-looking character 
than it is today ; for this reason the history of American magazines 
and newspapers furnishes many interesting names' and careers of 
those who were prominent editors in the early years. It might be 
said again in passing that those editorial influences were eminently 
characterized by the personal element; great journals like the "New 
York Tribune,''' "The Times" and "The Sun," spoke not as in the 
present day, impersonally, reflecting the ideas of the controlling 
powers, but these newspapers in their creative editorials and entire 
management set forth the mind and the will of their respective edi- 
tors—Horace Greeley, Henry J. Raymond and Charles A. Dana. The 
same may be said of the old magazines; the editors of them were 
generally men of independent convictions and of widely acknowl- 
edged literary abilities, for in those days it was scholarly and finish- 
ed writing which was generally considered to be essential for the suc- 
cess of a periodical, and accordingly the securing of an editor known 
to be proficient as an author was deemed an attractive and paying 
feature for the serial. On this account the history of American peri- 
odicals embraces not a few men and women of the highest literary 
reputation who have served in editorial capacities, beginning with 
Benjamin Franklin, the father of the magazine in this country, and 
continuing down to about fifty years ago, when the present methods 
began to be prominently introduced. 

Thomas Paine, whose writings previous to and during the Revolu- 
tion served immeasurably to promote the success of the Colonists, 
was first introduced to the people of this country as editor of "The 
Pennsylvania Magazine," in which periodical under the nam de 
plume of "Atlanticus" he won his first laurels in America. At the 
time of Paine 's assuming this editorship, in February, 1775, there 
appeared an article from his pen entitled, "The Magazine in Amer- 
ica," from which the following interesting paragraph is quoted: 

"It has always been the opinion of the learned and curious, that 
a magazine, when properly conducted, is the nursery of genius ; and 
by constantly accumulating new matter, becomes a kind of market 



for wit and utility. The opportunity which it affords to men of abil- 
ities to communicate their studies, kindles up a spirit of invention 
and emulation. An unexercised genius soon contracts a kind of 
mossiness, which not only checks its growth, but abates its natural 
vigor. Like an untenanted house it fails into decay, and frequently 
ruins the possessor." 

Charles B. Brown, in his day a popular writer, was the first typi- 
cal and distinctive American author to appear, and he is also nota- 
ble for having been the first man of letters in this country to follow 
authorship as a profession and for a livelihood; he, too, served as 
an editor — first, in 1801, of Conrad's "Literary Magazine and Amer- 
ican Review," Philadelphia, and later of "The Annual Regis- 
ter." Though all magazine enterprises were then a forlorn hope, 
Brown was, so far as possible, successful, promoting the prosperity 
of the periodicals which he edited; but his literary fame rests en- 
tirely upon his epochal books of fiction. 

The brilliant and eccentric genius of Edgar Allan Poe was also 
employed in magazine editorship, "The Southern Literary Messen- 
ger," of Richmond, Virginia, having been his first experience in this 
line, but he was a passionate and somewhat dissipated person, and 
after quarreling with the owner of the periodical was compelled to 
resign; in 1837 he went to New York, where he was connected with 
"The Quarterly Review" of that city. Remaining there for a year, 
he was then associated with "Graham's Magazine," of Philadel- 
phia, for a period of four years, a portion of the time serving as edi- 
tor. Here he again had a disagreement with the publisher and sun- 
dered his relations with the periodical. Poe cherished an ambition 
to possess a magazine and to edit it according to his own ideals, and 
it is possible that, with his talents liberated from the embarrassing 
tutelage under which he ever labored, his genius might have more 
widely developed, but with his erratic nature and convivial habits it 
is unlikely that he would have achieved success either as editor or 
proprietor. It would appear, however, that he has been a much 
slandered person, while the commendable phases of his life and 
character have been slighted; it should be said to his credit that he 
was an industrious and painstaking writer, thorough and conscien- 
tious from a literary standpoint in all that he committed to print; 
during the fifteen years of his productive period he wrote volumi- 
nously and at wretchedly inadequate rates, being ever harassed with 



poverty and anxiety, an invalid and beloved wife adding to the solic- 
itude under which he disadvantageously labored. Years ago "Har- 
per's Magazine" published a fine description of Poe's personal ap- 
pearance and of his mental characteristics, from the pen of a "Lady 
Love," and it is here reproduced: 

"Mr. Poe was about five feet eight inches tall, and had dark, al- 
most black hair, which he wore long and brushed back in student 
style over his ears. It was as fine as silk. His eyes were large and 
full, gray and piercing. He was then, I think, entirely clean-shaven. 
His nose was long and straight, and his features finely cut. The ex- 
pression about his mouth was beautiful. He was pale, and had no 
color. His skin was of a clear, beautiful olive. He had a sad, mel- 
ancholy look. He was very slender when I first knew him, but had a 
fine figure, an erect military carriage and a quick step. But it was 
his manner that most charmed. It was elegant. When he looked at 
you it seemed as if he could read your very thoughts. His voice was 
pleasant and musical, but not deep. 

"He always wore a black frock coat buttoned up, with a cadet or 
military collar, a low, turned-over shirt collar, and a black cravat 
tied in a loose knot. He did not follow the fashions, but had a style 
of his own. His was a loose way of dressing, as if he didn't care. 
You would know that he was very different from the ordinary run 
of young men. xVff ectionate ! I should think he was; he was pas- 
sionate in his love. 

"My intimacy with Mr. Poe isolated me a good deal. In fact my 
girl friends were many of them afraid of him, and forsook me on 
that account. I knew none of his male friends. He despised ignor- 
ant people, and didn't like trifling and small talk. He didn't like- 
dark-skinned people. When he loved, he loved desperately. Though 
tender and very affectionate, he had a quick, passionate temper and 
was very jealous. His feelings were intense, and he had but little 
control of them. He was not well balanced; he had too much brain. 
He scoffed at everything sacred, and never went to church. If he 
had had religion to guide him, he would have been a better man. He 
said ofien that there was a mystery hanging over him he never could 
fathom. He believed he was born to suffer, and this embittered his 
whole life." 

This is a remarkably clear pen-picture of a most interesting char- 
acter — of a gifted, wayward and unfortunate child of genius; cold 
and indifferent must be that person who can read this intimate and 
pathetic summing up of his merits and demerits without a feeling of 
sympathy and regret. Poe's military air, which is mentioned, was 
no doubt derived from his brief experience as a cadet at West Point 
Military Acad em v. 






A well-nigh forgotten literary light and editor of the old days was 
a writer who bore the sounding, oracular name of Orestes Augustus 
Brownson, who, starting in life midst humble circumstances and 
with a limited education, became through self-instruction a man of 
prodigious learning, acquired several languages, and by diligent 
study made himself deeply read in many departments of human 
knowledge. Of a literary turn and enthusiastic disposition, lie eag- 
erly committed to writing and to the press the results of his ever-en- 
larging studies and the ideas which he proliiically evolved from 
them, so that he left behind him at his death a great mass of valua- 
ble and profound writings having to do with religion, philosophy, 
science and many other topics; after having considered in his in- 
vestigations all religious systems and placed his various ideas in 
print, he finally adopted the Catholic church and its creed as the 
model for his faith and practice, and was thereafter actively devoted 
to that denomination. He was the founder of " Brownson 's Quar- 
terly Review," Boston, which ran from 1838 to 1844; in 1844, after 
having embraced the Catholic religion, he revived this periodical in 
New York, and it became the most prominent organ of that church 
in the country. This was not the first field, however, of Brownson 's 
editorial activity, for in the earlier portion of his career, when he 
was a believer in Universalism, he had served as editor of two dif- 
ferent periodicals devoted to the interests of that faith. He partook 
of that freedom of thought advocated and exercised by the Trans- 
cendentalists, and had been associated with Emerson and other 
prominent persons of that school of philosophy and religion, but the 
liberty of opinion which they assumed and moderately cultivated 
was abused by Brownson, who in the nineteen volumes of his works 
shows himself to have been wedded in a sort of intellectual bigamy 
to a variety of religious and philosophical beliefs, one after another, 
he himself admitting that he "had accepted and vindicated nearly 
every error into which the human race has ever fallen." 

As one reverts from the practical literary policies of the day to 
the editors and writers of the years which we are considering, it is 
like visiting another land and another people, so different are the 
aims and the methods employed. These former days were notable 
in the literary sphere for sincerity, power and fecundity of thought, 
for an enthusiastic searching after ultimate truth, for a striving 
towards the realization of ideals; and not for pecuniary profit, but 



for the enjoyment of the high enterprise and the anticipated grati- 
fication of the attainment. There were giants in those days — poets, 
preachers, essayists, philosophers, novelists — and as in the pages 
of their books we trace their mighty strides, we mourn for the ab- 
sence of their progeny, for they left no heirs of their greatness. But 
the favorable conditions in the midst of which these thinkers de- 
veloped have ceased to exist; there were then fewer distractions, less 
of urban population and of the commercial spirit; the weekly news- 
paper was the principal channel of information for the most of the 
people; the dissemination of news and opinions was slow; human 
life was unartificial and its interests were largely centered and en- 
grossed in the little neighborhood communities, with their postof- 
fices, stores and artisan shops — the people lived within themselves 
and for the most part supplied their own wants ; there were, there- 
fore, opportunities to think, and where that exists — where there is 
room for thought— there will arise great thinkers. The advent of 
rapid printing presses, the employment of wood-pulp paper, cheap 
postage, the telegraph, telephone and other means of speedy and 
general communication and distribution ; the wiping out of the small 
villages by the centralized activities of the cities; the introduction 
of the rural post routes by which all are able to have daily papers; 
amateur photography and the invention of photo-engraving, by 
which agencies illustrated magazines have been multiplied and 
brought within the means of and made convenient to all, building up 
great periodical publishing concerns — all this has conduced to a 
superficial and general enlightenment,but it has not fostered original 
and deep thinking, and without profound thought little of real and 
permanent value is wrought. Periodical literature has degenerated 
to a commercial level; profiting by the great amount derived from 
advertisements, which depend, of course, upon the extent of the cir- 
culation, the popular magazines have use for only those writers who 
are competent to entertain the largest number of readers, which 
condition has had a discouraging effect upon the producers of a 
more thoughtful and permanent literature. 

Standing in the middle ground between the old-time and the mod- 
ern magazine proprietor is the unique personality of Robert Bon- 
ner; he was the first of that line of periodical magnates who by the 
adoption of bold and daring business methods achieve success. Born 
in Ireland in 1824- and coming to this country at the age of fifteen, he 





QyVdU*^ J^a^d-^U£j^c^u2Y^> 


became an apprentice in the "Hartford (Conn.) Courant" printing 
office. Pie developed into an expert and rapid compositor, and com- 
ing to New York was employed by "The Evening Mirror," making 
use of his leisure hours to write newsletters to "The Courant." 
Having accumulated a modest capital, he purchased in 1851 "The 
Merchants' Ledger," of New York, converted it into a literary 
weekly, and engaged Fanny Fern, a popular writer of the day, to 
contribute to the periodical at one hundred dollars a column, which 
was considered an enormous amount at that time for such work. 
Fanny Fern was the pen-name of Sara P. Willis, a sister of Nathan- 
iel P. Willis; she married James Parton who, in his day, was a wide- 
ly known author and whose biographies of noted men are still read 
and admired. Bonner renamed his weekly "The New York Ledger," 
and through the advertising he gave it and from the employment of 
the highest writing talent available, it acquired a vast circulation 
and made a fortune for its owner. His outlay for advertising fre- 
quently amounted to twenty-five thousand dollars a week, while 
Charles Dickens and other great literary men of the times were con- 
tribiitors ; he paid Henry Ward Beecher, then the most famous 
clergyman of the country, thirty thousand dollars for his novel, 
"Norwood," which appeared serially and was widely read. In the 
meantime, however, Bonner allowed no advertisements to appear in 
"The Ledger," the periodical criterion of the day being no adver- 
tisements and no illustrations. Longfellow was not too proud and 
conservative to sell his poems to this frankly-confessed money-mak- 
ing magazine ; three thousand dollars were paid him by Bonner for 
his poem, ' ' The Hanging of the Crane ; ' ' but the bulk of the reading 
matter which appeared in "The Ledger" appealed to the less dis- 
criminating portion of the public. 

Bonner was fond of horses, and spent as much as six hundred 
thousand dollars in the gratification of this hobby, purchasing the 
fastest trotters for fabulous prices, but never engaging in public 
races. This, of course, was an indirect method of advertising; the 
writer well remembers the astonishment that prevailed when the 
news was excitedly spread throughout the country that Bonner of 
"The Ledger" had bought "Dexter," a trotting horse that held the 
world's record, paying for him a great price, and to be used merely 
as a driving horse. It may be said that two incongruous episodes 
gave "The Ledger" and its owner their greatest renown — the se- 



curing of Beecher's "Norwood," and the purchase of "Dexter." 
Bonner was, however, an excellent and popular man, of an amiable 
and friendly disposition, a liberal contributor to philanthropic pur- 
poses and a faithful adherent of his church; altogether he was the 
most conspicuous, unique and successful periodical publisher of his 

To emphasize what has already been said : in recent years maga- 
zine publishing and editing has grown to be in many instances a 
purely commercial enterprise, with literary ideals forgotten in the 
rush for an enlarging circulation, though there are some exceptions. 
Beginning about the year 1870, advertisements began to appear pro- 
fusely in the magazines, and with the great profits thus accruing, the 
success of periodical publishing was assured, although, as can eas- 
ily be understood, this policy necessitated a departure from the 
former ideals which had been maintained in editorial rooms, and re- 
quired an adaptation to the ideas and activities of the day, in order 
that the circulation might be increased and thus higher prices af- 
forded for the display of advertisements. Hence, the demand that 
the editors of such magazines now make upon writers is for fiction 
that has striking episodes, strange and unheard-of situations, droll 
phraseology, barbarian dialect — anything to attract and hold the 
attention of the masses and sell the periodical. As to material of 
rare and refined sentiment, or of a meditative or historic character, 
it finds no market in the average magazine of today. Instead of the 
old-time editor, thoughtful, discriminating, wedded to the highest 
traditions of literature, with lofty ethical standards, refusing, in 
agreement with the author, to have names appended to articles, so 
that merit and only merit might sway in them; — in place of this, we 
have now a class of men making up the selections for many of our 
periodicals who are in close touch with the circulation manager and 
the news-stand, and who derive their cues from those practical 
sources. Guided by this policy the American magazine has devel- 
oped to astonishing material success and arrived at proportions un- 
equaled by any other nation on the globe, for practically every fam- 
ily in this country is a subscriber to one or more monthlies or week- 
lies, and frequently to half a dozen. The older and conservative 
periodicals, threatened with extinction by the rush for the ephemer- 
al and bizarre, are gradually succumbing to the popular demand. 

These conditions have exercised, of course, a deleterious effect up- 



on the writer fraternity, who, though certain of them have been pe- 
cuniarily successful beyond anything in the history of authorship, 
have been compelled to lower their standards, or to curb their aspira- 
tions for the attainment of the higher planes of literary achieve- 
ment. Thus, there is now little opportunity as in former times for 
the independent and conscientious writer to rise into honorable dis- 
tinction, for the great periodicals either have under contract or 
ready to respond to their calls, a group of writers who are experts in 
just the line of material which they employ. It is not uncommon 
for several periodicals to be owned and managed by one publishing 
concern, and in such cases it is the fashion to employ a staff of 
adept fiction writers on weekly wages, who furnish the stories used 
by the various magazines issued by the firm. The tendency to spec- 
ialization which is operative in every field of human activity has 
manifested itself in the literary sphere, so that today an editor in- 
stead of depending upon unsolicited material sent in by unknown 
writers, delegates men of his staff, or other persons whom he deems 
competent, to write the fiction or the article that he wishes ; in fact, 
editors of magazines not infrequently block out for authors the 
treatment of the material they desire, even providing for story 
writers the plots of the yarns they are to build around them. It will 
be apparent from all this that the unknown and unfledged writer 
stands but little chance of gaining an acceptance from magazines of 
the character which we have been discussing. 

But there is a brighter side to periodical literature in the United 
States ; so far we have been dealing with the popular prints, those 
which sell to the hurrying, undiscriminating portion of the people, 
to those who have not the inclination nor even the time to peruse 
thoughtful and instructive writings ; but it should be remembered 
that there are a great many persons to whom the worthier type of 
magazine would appeal, were publishers willing to produce and au- 
thors to write them for the comparatively small remuneration which 
they would achieve. This field, however, is being widely cultivated 
today, more than ever since the coming in of the floods of popular 
periodicals, by a host of religious, household, historical, fraternal, 
reform and educational magazines, many of which have very large 
circulations, are ably edited and attractively printed and illustrated, 
and though never seen on news stands nor hawked on trains, are 
silently performing a great and cultural work. In the meantime, 



the multiplying of a class of magazines aiming at the opposite ef- 
fect — something to startle and dazzle — is a process of grave digging 
preparatory to death by starvation, hundreds of them having ceased 
to exist within the past few years, and the end is not yet. The great 
newspapers, particularly the Sunday editions, are, with their maga- 
zine features, rivaling and even distancing many of them in the race 
for popularity. 

The eclipse of the old-time dignified magazine has been accompan- 
ied with the failing renown of the author ; — no longer does he com- 
mand the veneration of the people ; — thousands are writing but gen- 
erally without any distinctive personality ; the output lacks individ- 
uality, sincerity, high purpose and ethical, cultural atmosphere; it 
is common, ordinary, wanting deep and lasting merit, devoid of ap- 
peal to the best sentiments of the people, without which it is destined 
to go into the limbo of ephemeral literature. But in the decades to 
come there will perchance yet live some story, poem or article that 
a sincere and worthy soul has committed to writing and which the 
editor of some obscure periodical has appreciated and printed, which 
will shine on into the future, an inspiration to the reader and a last- 
ing honor to the author. 



The Early American Press 

By John Woolf Jordan, LL.D., Librarian of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 

NDREW HAMILTON, the earliest and most conspicuous 
cliampion of the liberty of speech and of the press in 
America, as well as one of the ablest lawyers and states- 
men the colonies produced, was for over twenty-five 
years a resident of Philadelphia. A Scotchman by birth, his immi- 
gration to America and its cause are somewhat shrouded in mystery. 
The family tradition is that he was obliged to flee from his native 
country in consequence of the killing of a person of some importance 
in a duel. Always the cliampion of right and justice, even when 
opposed to conventional customs or laws, he was doubtless involved 
in some of the political difficulties of Great Britain during the reign 
of King William. 

He was born about 1670, and seems to have come to America dur- 
ing the first decade of the following century. On March 26, 1708, he 
purchased of John Toads six hundred acres on the north side of 
Chester river, in Kent county, Maryland, on the present site of the 
town of Millington, the plantation then being known by the name 
of "Henberry." In the deed for this property he is described as 
of Northampton county, Virginia. During his residence in Virginia 
he seems to have concealed his real name, and have taken that of 
Trent. The fact that after the accession of Queen Anne he resumed 
his real name, may be taken to indicate that his flight and temporary 
obscure life in Virginia was caused by some political trouble. As 
he eventually returned to England and obtained admission to Gray's 
Inn and the English Bar, it is very evident that he did not emigrate 
to America under any disgraceful charge. 
While a resident of Virginia he is said to have had charge of an 

Note — These pages are reproduced from one of Dr. Jordan's monumental works, 
"Colonial and Revolutionary Families of Pennsylvania," 191 1; Lewis Publishing Com- 
pany, whose business and archives are now vested in The American Historical Society, 
Inc., New York. 



estate, and to have conducted a classical school. After his removal 
to Kent county, Maryland, he practiced law not only in Kent but in 
adjoining counties, and as far north as Philadelphia, making "Hen- 
berry" his residence for several years. By 1721 he was estab- 
lished in Chestertown, with a large practice and a great reputation 
as a lawyer. In that year he was retained as attorney for William 
Penn in a suit against Berkley Codd, Esq., of Sussex county, on 
the Delaware, whose step-great-granddaughter Andrew Hamilton, 
son of the distinguished attorney, later married, obtaining through 
her the handsome estate of "Woodlands," near Philadelphia, the 
home of the family for several generations. The suit of Penn vs. 
Codd had to do with a dispute over the rights of Penn under the 
grant from the Duke of York. 

It is supposed that the legal studies of Andrew Hamilton, com- 
menced in Great Britain, must have been completed in Maryland, 
where there were among the officials of the government several 
men of considerable legal attainments, and among the gentry of the 
Eastern Shore some highly educated men. He, however, felt the 
need of the additional standing which membership in the English 
Bar gave to those practicing before the early Colonial Justices, 
and late in 1712 sailed for England, on January 27, 1712-13, was 
admitted a member of Gray's Inn, as Mr. Andrew Hamilton of 
Maryland, and on t^ebruary 10th following was called to the Bar. 

Returning to Maryland, he resumed his extensive practice at 
Chestertown. He was selected as one of the Assembly summoned by 
Governor John Hart to meet on April 26, 1715, for the purpose of 
codifying the laws of the Province of Maryland, being one of the 
four deputies from Kent county. Not being present when the As- 
sembly met, he was summoned by the sergeant-at-arms, and on his 
appearance excused himself on the ground that he was engaged as 
counsel in an important case before the Supreme Court of Pennsyl- 
vania. The delegates fined him forty-five shillings for non-attend- 
ance, but they placed him at once on the Committee of Laws, and the 
forty-six chapters of the Acts of 1715, codified by that committee, 
formed the basis of the statute law of the Province down to the 
Revolution and for long afterwards. Some time during the next 
two years, Andrew Hamilton gave up his Maryland residence and 
made his home in Philadelphia. He had subsequently added to his 
purchase of "Henberry" a neighboring plantation called "Partner- 



ship," and after removing to Philadelphia sold both estates, by deed 
dated September 16, 1717, to Gilbert Falconer. 

Andrew Hamilton was appointed Attorney General of Pennsyl- 
vania, September 21, 1717, and held that office until his resignation 
in 1726, his successor, Joseph Growden, Junr., of Bucks county, be- 
ing commissioned September 26th following. In 1720 he was called 
to the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, and only consented to 
serve on condition that his attendance should not be allowed to inter- 
fere with the practice of his profession; and, though he retained 
membership in the council until his death in 1711, he seems rarely 
if ever to have taken a seat in that body. 

On his resignation of the Attorney General's office, he made an 
extended visit to England, and on his return, June 5, 1727, was ap- 
pointed by Governor Patrick Gordon to be Prothonotary of the 
Court of Philadelphia. He had previously (July 30, 1723), been 
made a Master of the High Court of Chancery. In 1727 he was 
elected a member of the Colonial Assembly from Bucks county, and 
continued to represent that county in the House until the close of 
the session in 1739, filling the position of speaker from 1729 until 
his voluntary retirement, excepting the session of 1733-4, receiving 
at one time the unanimous vote of the members for that office. He 
took a leading part in the business of the House from the first, being 
chairman of its most important committees, and the author of most 
of the addresses to the Governor and Proprietors, as well as to the 
English Government, and was also the draughtsman of the import- 
ant Acts. He was a trustee of the Loan Office, and had charge of the 
building of the now historic State House at Philadelphia, for which 
he furnished the designs. 

The address of Andrew Hamilton to the Assembly at the close of 
the session of 1739 when he announced his retirement from that 
body, so well illustrates the high character and noble resolves of the 
man, as Avell as his appreciation of the benefit of the form of gov- 
ernment enacted by Wiliarn Penn, that it is inserted here almost in 
its entiretv: 

"Gentlemen: As the service of the Country should be the only 
Motive to induce any man to take upon him the Country's Trust, 
which none ought to assume who find themselves incapable of giving 
such a constant Attendance as the nature of so great Trust requires ; 
and as you are witnesses of the frequent Indispositions of Body I 



have so long laboured under, particularly during the winter Season 
(the usual Time of doing Business here), and being apprehensive 
that, by Season of my Age and Infirmities, which daily increase, 
I may be unable to discharge the Duty expected from a Member of 
Assembly; I therefore hope that these Considerations alone, were 
there no others, will appear to you sufficient to justify the Deter- 
mination I am come to, of declining the farther Service of the Prov- 
ince in a Representative Capacity. 

"As to my Conduct, it is not for me to condemn or commend it. 
Those who have sat here from time to time during my standing, 
and particularly these several Gentlemen present, who were Mem- 
bers when I first came into the House (whom I now see with pleas- 
ure) have the Right to judge of my Behavior, and will censure or 
approve it as it has deserved. But whatever that may have been, 
I know my own Intentions, and that I have ever had at Heart the 
Preservation of Liberty, the Love of which as it first drew me to, 
so it constantly prevailed upon me to reside in this Province, tho' 
to the manifest Prejudice of my Fortune. 

"But (waiving all Remarks of a private Nature, which Reflections 
of this kind might naturally, and justly lead me into), I would beg 
Leave to observe to you, That it is not to the Fertility of our Soil, 
and the Commodiousness of our Rivers, that we ought chiefly to at- 
tribute the great Progress this Province has made, within so small a 
Compass of Years, in Improvements, Wealth, Trade, and Naviga- 
tion, and the extraordinary Increase of People, who have been 
drawn thither from almost every Country in Europe; a Progress 
which much more ancient Settlements on the Main of America can- 
not at present boast of. No, it is principally and almost wholly owing 
to the Excellency of our Constitution, under which we enjoy a 
greater Share of both civil and religious Liberty than any of our 

"It is our greatest Happiness that instead of triennial Assemblies, 
a Privilege which other Colonies have long endeavored to obtain, 
but in vain, ours are annual, and for that Reason, as well as others, 
less liable to be practiced upon, or corrupted, either, with Money or 
Presents. We sit upon our own Adjournments, when we please, 
and as long as we think necessary, and are not to be sent a Packing, 
in the Middle of a Debate, and disabled from representing our just 
Grievances to our Gracious Sovereign, if there should be Occasion, 
which has often been the hard fate of Assemblies in other Places. 

"We have no Officers but what are necessary; none but what earn 
their Salaries, and those generally are either elected by the People 
or appointed by their Representatives. 

"Other Provinces swarm with unnecessary Officers, nominated by 
the Governors, who often make it a Main part of their Care to Sup- 
port these Officers (notwithstanding their Oppressions). At all 



events, I hope it will ever be the wisdom of our Assemblies to create 
no great Offices or Officers, nor indeed any Officer at all, but what 
is really necessary for the Service of the Country, and to be sure 
and let the People, or their Representatives, have at least, a share 
in their Nomination or Appointment. This will always be a good 
Security against the mischievous Influence of Men holding Places 
at the Pleasure of the Governor. 

"Our foreign Trade and Shipping are free from all imposts, 
except the small Duties payable to his Majesty by the Statute Laws 
of Great Britain. The Taxes which we pay for carrying on the 
Publick Service is inconsiderable; for the sole Power of raising 
and disposing of the Publick Money for the support of Government 
is lodged in the Assembly, who appoint their own Treasurer, and to 
them alone he is accountable. Other incidental Taxes are assessed, 
collected and applied by Persons annually chosen by the People 
themselves. Such is our happy State as to Civil Eights. Nor are 
we less happy in the enjoyment of a perfect Freedom as to Re- 
ligion. By many years Experience, we find that an Equality among 
Religious Societies, without distinguishing any one Sect with 
greater Privileges than another, is the most effectual Method to dis- 
courage Hypocrisy, promote the Practice of moral Virtues, and 
prevent the Plagues and Mischiefs that always attend religious 

"This is our Constitution, and this Constitution was framed by 
the wisdom of Mr. Penn, the first Proprietor and Founder of the 
Province, whose Charter of Privileges to the Inhabitants of Penn- 
sylvania will ever remain a Monument of his Benevolence to Man- 
kind and reflect more lasting Honor on his Descendants than the 
largest Possessions. In the Framing of this Government, he re- 
served no Powers to himself or his Heirs to oppress the People ; no 
Authority but what is necessary for our Protection, and to hinder 
us from falling into Anarchy; and therefore (supposing we could 
persuade ourselves that all our Obligations to our great Law-giver, 
and his honourable Descendants, were entirely cancelled), yet 
our own Interests should oblige us carefully to support the Govern- 
ment on its present Foundation, as the only Means to secure to our- 
selves and our Posterity the enjoyment of those Privileges, and the 
Blessings flowing from such a Constitution, under which we can- 
not fail of being happy if the Fault is not our own. . . . 

"As this, Gentlemen, is likely to be the last Time I may trouble 
you with anything in this Place, I hope you will the more easily par- 
don the Liberties I have taken, and that you will farther permit me 
here to acknowledge my Obligations to that County, which has so 
often elected me for one of their Representatives ; and at the same 
time to assure you, that I shall always retain a grateful Sense of 
the great Confidence so long reposed in me, and the Honour so 



frequently conferred upon me by many successive Assemblies, in 
calling me to the chair of this honourable House." 

Strange though it may appear, it would seem that Andrew Ham- 
ilton, during a portion of the time that he was serving as Speaker 
of the House of Assembly of Pennsylvania, was also filling a like 
position in the Assembly of the Three Lower Counties, now the State 
of Delaware. The Laws of Delaware, printed by Franklin, 1741, show 
that a number of the more elaborate statutes bear the signature of 
Andrew Hamilton as Speaker. Among them are the Acts for Reg- 
ulating Elections, for Securing the Administration of Estates, for 
the Confirmation of Titles to Lands; and for Establishing Courts 
of Equity. These were all, without doubt, like the important stat- 
utes on these lines in Pennsylvania, drawn by Andrew Hamilton, 
and have been cited as evidence of his great ability by eminent 
lawyers. A letter from John French, Speaker of the House of the 
Lower Counties, dated March 15, 1726, tenders to Andrew Hamil- 
ton the thanks of "The Representatives of this Government in As- 
sembly," for "services you have this session done." 

It is mainly through the laws that bear impress of his profes- 
sional ability, that we gain an accurate knowledge of Mr. Hamil- 
ton's eminent ability as a lawyer, as only fragmentary and tradi- 
tional evidences of his professional attainments have come down to 
us, with the exception of his celebrated argument in the Zenger 
libel case in New York, which, says truly one of his biographers, 
"has procured for him a place in the History of Liberty, and has 
been called by Gouverneur Morris 'the Day Star of the Revolution,' 
as it unquestionably awakened the public mind throughout the Col- 
onies to a conception of the most sacred rights as citizens and as 
subjects of a Free Country." 

John Peter Zenger, whom it is said Andrew Hamilton knew when 
a resident of Kent county, Maryland, had gone to New York, where 
he learned the printer's trade with AVilliam Bradford. On No- 
vember 5, 1733, Zenger started the publication of "The New Y r ork 
Weekly Journal." It at once marked a new era in American 
journalism, as up to that time political discussion was unknown in 
American newspapers, and almost as much so in England. Zeng- 
er 's "Journal" from the first was filled with a series of articles able, 
witty, sarcastic, and severely personal, criticizing the acts of officers 
of the government of New York and New Jersey, and harped inces 1 



santly on "The Liberty of the Press." The cry was readily taken 
up by the people of both States, as well as in other localities, even 
as far south as Charleston, where a paper of like calibre was soon 
started. The columns of "The Journal" were open to all, and the 
leading articles were doubtless written by Lewis Morris, James 
Alexander and William Smith, the leaders of the Popular Party as 
opposed to the "Court Party" composed of the adherents of Gov- 
ernor Cosby of New York, between which two factions an extraor- 
dinarily bitter contest was being waged at the polls, in the forum of 
public opinion, and in the halls of legislation and govern- 
ment. On the election of Morris as a member of the New 
York Assembly from Westchester county, Zenger's paper was 
filled with songs, squibs and articles exulting over the vic- 
tory, and severely scoring the other party. When a year later 
(1734) a like rejoicing over the success of the Popular Party had 
incensed the Court Party, Chief Justice DeLancey charged the 
grand jury that Zenger's paper was inculcating treason and defa- 
mation, and insisted on his indictment, but they contented them- 
selves with presenting the songs and copies of the papers, to be 
burned by the common hangman. A year later, however, August 4, 
1735, Zenger was brought to trial. Alexander and Smith, who ap- 
peared as Zenger's counsel, were disbarred by Chief Justice De 
Lancey. The friends of Zenger then secured the services of An- 
drew Hamilton, who undertook the case without fee or reward. 
Hamilton admitted the publication of the articles by his client, and 
laid the whole stress of his argument on their non-libelous character. 
The Chief Justice refusing to listen, Hamilton turned to the jury 
and declared that as the court would not hear him, the jury alone 
must be judge of the law as well as of the facts. And then for hours 
the great advocate held the packed court room spellbound, as he 
made the first plea ever heard in America for the freedom of the 
citizen and of the press, from the tyranny of the riders, and in 
criticism of their public acts. Despite the extremely bitter charge 
of the Chief Justice, the verdict of the jury was "not guilty," and 
Zenger was borne away in triumph on the shoulders of his friends. 
It was the most memorable trial ever held in America, and estab- 
lished the principle that in such cases the jury must be judges of the 
law and the evidence, and was therefore a grand victory for the 
people. The next day, when Hamilton was about to take the boat 



for his home in Philadelphia, he was followed to the water's side by 
nearly the whole populace, who hailed him as the champion of pop- 
ular liberty, and the corporation of New York presented him with 
"the freedom of the city," and a gold box for the seal. The speech 
of Andrew Hamilton was repeatedly printed in England and Amer- 
ica, and "justly established its author's fame as the first lawyer of 
his time in the British Provinces." As was said, "It may be com- 
mended more for its bold enunciation of a principle, than for the 
accumulation of learned citations and for its argument from prece- 
dents; but it uses its authorities with masterly skill, and deals 
crushing blows to the prosecution and the court." The masterly 
effort in the interest of personal liberty is more to be commended 
from the fact that it was made entirely without remuneration or the 
hope thereof, and when the author was suffering from ill health. 

Mr. Hamilton was in the employ of the Proprietary family from 
his removal to Philadelphia until his death. In the difficulties with 
Lord Baltimore he was particularly useful, and served in various 
commissions to meet the Maryland authorities in framing the Terms 
of Agreement in 1732 upon which the case was brought before the 
Privy Council, and prepared the materials for the brief upon 
which it was finally submitted to the Court of Chancery after his 
death. Chief Justice Langhorne, of Bucks county, in a letter to 
John Penn dated May 20, 1727, says: "I am very sorry the dis- 
pute you have with Lord Baltimore is not likely to be brought to an 
issue. . . . Had Mr. Hamilton's advice been strictly pursued 
relating to the disputes with the Province of Maryland, I am of 
opinion our Province would have come off with more credit and 
reputation." Andrew Hamilton was held in high consideration by 
his professional brethren in the neighboring provinces, where his 
opinion was constantly sought for. He was also consulted by dif- 
ferent Provincial Governors, and was employed in the courts of sev- 
eral colonies. 

The first Philadelphia home of Andrew Hamilton was the mansion 
on Chestnut street, near Third street, where it is said his son, 
Governor James Hamilton, was born, later owned and occupied by 
Israel Pemberton, and during Washington's administration occu- 
pied by Alexander Hamilton as the Treasury Department of the 
United States. The "Bush Hill" estate, where his later days were 
spent and where he died, was granted to him by William Penn, from 



a part of the Manor of Springettsbury. It comprised that part of 
the present city of Philadelphia extending from Vine street to 
Fairmount avenue and from Twelfth to Nineteenth streets. Here 
he erected a spacious and stately mansion in which he died, and 
where his son, the Governor, long dispensed a magnificent and gen- 
erous hospitality. During Washington's administration it was the 
residence of John Adams, Vice-President of the United States. He 
also owned a great amount of valuable real estate in the city, on 
Walnut and Chestnut streets and elsewhere ; also considerable land 
in New Jersey, in the Lower Counties, and in Bucks county. 

Andrew Hamilton died at Bush Hill, August 4, 1741, and was 
buried in the family burying ground on that estate, but upon its 
sale his remains, with those of other members of the family, were 
removed to a spacious mausoleum in Christ Churchyard, which 
was closed upon the interment of the last of his name, about 1851. 

On his death the following obituary notice, which was attributed 
to Benjamin Franklin, was published in the "Pennsylvania Ga- 

"On the fourth instant, died Andrew Hamilton, Esq., and was next 
day interred at Bush Hill, his Country Seat. His Corpse was at- 
tended to the grave by a great number of his friends, deeply affected 
with their own, but more with their Country's loss. He lived not 
without enemies; for, as he was himself open and honest, he took 
pains to unmask the hypocrite, and boldly censured the knave, with- 
out regard to station or profession. Such, therefore, may exult in 
his death. He steadily maintained the Cause of Liberty; and the 
laws made during the time he was Speaker of the Assembly, which 
was many years, will be a lasting monument of his affection to the 
people, and of his concern for the welfare of this Province. He was 
no friend to power, as he had observed an ill-use had been frequently 
made of it in the Colonies ; and therefore was seldom on good terms 
with the Governors. This prejudice however, did not always de- 
termine his conduct towards them, for, when he saw they meant 
well, he was for supporting them honourably, and was indefatigable 
in endeavoring to remove the prejudice of others. He was long at 
the top of his profession here ; and had he been as griping as he was 
knowing, he might have left a much greater fortune to his family 
than he has done. But he spent much more time in hearing and 
reconciling differences in private (to the loss of his fees) than he did 
in pleading cases at the bar. He was just when he sat as Judge, and 
though he was stern and severe in his manner, he was compassionate 
in his nature, and very slow to punish. He was a tender husband 



and a fond parent. But these are virtues which fools and knaves 
have sometimes, in common with the wise and honest. His free man- 
ner of treating religious subjects gave offence to many, who, if a 
man may judge from their actions, were not themselves much in 
earnest, lie feared God, loved mercy, and did justice. If he could 
not subscribe to the Creed of any particular Church, it was not for 
want of considering them all, for he had read much on religious sub- 
jects. He went through a tedious sickness with uncommon cheerful- 
ness, constancy and courage. Nothing of affected bravery or osten- 
tation appeared; but such a composure and tranquility of mind as 
results from the reflection of a life spent agreeably to the best of 
man's judgment. He preserved his understanding and his regard 
for his friends to the last moment. ' ' 

Andrew Hamilton married, March 6, 1706, in Northampton county, 
Virginia, Anne, widow of Joseph Preeson and daughter of Thomas 
and Susanna (Denwood) Brown. She was a lady of some fortune, 
and was connected with many of the best families in Maryland. She 
died about 1736. 

The foregoing may very properly be supplemented with the fol- 
lowing from the pen of a prominent present-day lawyer residing in 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania:* 

"David Paul Brown in his 'Forum' describes a portrait of Hamil- 
ton as follows : The only portrait we have, near this date, which 
represents the costume of the bar, is a very good one of Andrew 
Hamilton, done no doubt in England ; he is dressed in a long flowing 
wig, a scarlet coat, frilled bosom and bands, precisely like those worn 
by some denominations of clergymen in our time. 

"His biographer states that traces of his employment are found 
in the courts of several of the colonies, and that his opinion was 
often sought for by different provincial governors. While at home 
he probably had a part in every important case. Hamilton's fame, 
however, chiefly rests upon his defense of Zenger, publisher of the 
'New York Weekly Journal,' who was prosecuted in 1735 upon an 
information filed by the Attorney General of New York, charging 
him with printing and publishing certain false, scandalous and sedi- 
tious libels in his paper against the Colonial authorities. Two of the 
most prominent lawyers at the New York Bar were retained for 
Zenger, but upon their filing exceptions to the commissions of the 
judges before whom Zenger was being prosecuted, they found them- 
selves promptly disbarred for contempt, whereupon the popular 

*"Courts and Lawyers of Pennsylvania," by Frank M. Eastman; four vols.; The 
American Historical Society, Inc., New York; now in press. 



parly in New York retained Hamilton to assist other counsel ap- 
pointed by the court to represent the defendant. 

"We have already seen, in the case of Proprietor vs. Governor 
Keith, et al. s tried in the Philadelphia quarter sessions in December, 
1692, that it was held that in a suit for sedition or libel, evidence of 
the truth of the seditious or libelous statements might be offered and 
submitted, and the jury left to decide whether or not the statements 
were seditious or libelous. This was the first time that the law had 
ever been so held, and in fact, the ruling was contrary to law as it 
then existed. At the Zenger trial, Hamilton was not permitted to 
offer any evidence as to the truth of the facts alleged in the publica- 
tions complained of, but he appealed to the jury as witnesses to the 
truth of the facts involved, and by a brilliant effort secured the ac- 
quittal of his client, for which he received the public thanks of the 
corporation of the City of New York, and the freedom of the city 
enclosed in a gold snuff box. 

"The proceedings in the case were printed in New Y r ork, Boston 
and London, and excited general interest. Of his argument in this 
case Horace Binney says: 'He merely claimed to liberate the jury 
from the authority of some disagreeable law and of an obnoxious 
court holding its appointment from the crown. No lawyer can read 
that argument without perceiving, that, while it was a spirited and 
vigorous, though rather overbearing harangue which carried the 
jury away from the instruction of the court, and from the estab- 
lished law of both the colony and the mother country, he argued 
elaborately what was not law any where with the same confidence 
as he did the better points of his case. It is, however, worth remem- 
bering, and to his honour, that he was half a century before Mr. 
Erskine, and the declaratory act of Mr. Fox, in asserting the right 
of a jury to give a general verdict in libel as much as in murder, and 
in spite of the court, the jury believed him and acquitted his client. ' " 

Largely in character with his narrative concerning Andrew Ham- 
ilton, is Dr. Jordan's history of the Bradford family, and from 
which the following is condensed : 

Wilham Bradford, the first printer in the province of Pennsyl- 
vania, was the son of William and Anne Bradford, of Leicestershire, 
England. He served an apprenticeship with Andrew Sowle, a 
printer and publisher of Friends' books, and learned the art and 
trade of a printer and publisher. He came to Pennsylvania sup- 
posedly with Penn, in the Welcome, in 1682; he was certainly living 
in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, September 12, 1683. How long 
he remained in the Quaker Colony before he returned to England 
does not appear, but he was in London in August, 1685, when he re- 



jceivod a letter from George Fox recommending him to prominent 
Friends in America as a "sober Young Man who comes to Pennsyl- 
vania to set up the trade of printing Friends' Books." During this 
visit to London he married Elizabeth Sowle, daughter of his mas- 
ter and preceptor, and she accompanied him to Pennsylvania. They 
.settled in Oxford township, Philadelphia county, and were mem- 
ibers of the old Oxford Meeting, which merged into a Baptist Meet- 
ing in 1693, practically all of i f s members being followers of George 
•Keith in his schism of 1692. 

Just where William Bradford set up his printing press does not 
seem to have been definitely determined, but that it was not in Phil- 
adelphia seems clear. When he published "Bunyeat's Epistle" in 
1686, it bore on its title page this inscription : "Printed and Sold by 
William Bradford, near Philadelphia." Becoming involved in the 
Keithian controversy through publishing some of Keith's virulent 
papers and pamphlets against the Quakers, he became obnoxious to 
.some of the leading people of the colony, and was arrested and tried 
for publishing seditious writings, but was not convicted. His use- 
fulness and prosperity in the Quaker Colony was, however, at an end 
for a time, and in 1693 he removed to New York City, where he was 
■made Royal Printer, April 10, 1693, the first product of his press 
being a circular letter from Governor Benjamin Fletcher, dated 
June that year, and printed in Dutch and English. He continued as 
public printer for the Province of New York for over half a century, 
nut did not abandon the same field in Philadelphia, as in 1712 he sent 
his son Andrew to that city to establish the printing business there. 

William Bradford started the "New York Gazette," the first 
newspaper to be published in that city, October 16, 1725, nearly six 
years after his son Andrew had started the "American Weekly Mer- 
cury" in Philadelphia, and continued to edit it until 1743. He died 
May 23, 1752, and was buried in Trinity Churchyard, where his an- 
cient tombstone bears this inscription: 

Here lies the body of 
Printer; who departed this life May 23, 1752, aged 92 Yeares; He 
was born in Leicestershire, in Old England, in 1663, and came over 
to America in 1682, before the city of Philadelphia was laid out. 
He was Printer to this Government for upwards of 50 Yeares, and 


The Excellent Priviledge of 



Of the Free-born Subjects of EngUnl. 


I . Aftgrn ChmtA, with a learned Comment upon 

I I. The Confirmation of the Charters of the Li- 
berties of England and of theForreft, madein 
the 5 5th year of Edward tfie Firfb 

II T A Statute made the 54 Ed®. 1 , commonly 
called Dc Ta^gto non ConctdcrJo % wherein all 
Fundamental Lews, Liberties and Cuftoms are 
confirmed. With a Comment upon it. 

1 V. Anabftraftofthe Patient granted by the 
King to WfiUiam Perm and his Hsirs and Af- 
Ggns for the Province of Vermftlvania. 

V. And LmJ, ?/>',Thc Charter of Liberties granted 
by the faid Vftlliam Penn to the Free-men and 
Inhabitants of (he Province of Vtnnfilv&n'ui and 
Territories thereunto annexed, In Jmtrisa. 

Major Hrreditds vtnit wti<n/iq; nojlnim a 
jure & Ltgibm % quam a ? Are nt thus. 

Fac-simile of title page of a pamphlet published in Philadel 
phia in 1687, containing the Great Charter 


being quite -worn out with Old Age and Honour, he left this Mortai 
state in lively hopes of a blessed immortality. 

Reader, reflect how too you'll quit this stage. 

You'll find but few attain to such an age. 
Life's full of Pain; Lo, there's a Place of Rest, 

Prepare to meet your GOD, then you are blest. 

Near by is also the tombstone of his wife Elizabeth, who died June 
8, 1731, at the age of sixty-eight years. Her father, Andrew Sowle, 
with whom William Bradford learned his trade, was a printer and 
publisher in the time of Cromwell, and was later an intimate friend 
and a first purchaser of William Penn, and witnessed the Charter of 
Liberties for Pennsylvania, signed April 15, 1682. 

Andrew, son of William Bradford, born in Philadelphia, 1686, way 
reared in New York, learned the printer's trade with his father, and 
entered into partnership with him in 1711. In 1712 he returned to 
Philadelphia, and December 21, 1719, issued the first number of the 
"American Weekly Mercury," which was the second newspaper 
founded in the colonies, and published it until his death, November 
24, 1742. His son, William Bradford, Jr., learned the printer's trade 
with his father, but owing to poor health abandoned it and took to 
seafaring and mercantile life. 

William Bradford (3rd), son of William Bradford, Jr., by his 
wife, Sytje Santvoort, was born in New York City, January 19, 
1721-22. After a preliminary education there, he was sent by his 
parents to Philadelphia to learn the printing business with his uncle, 
Andrew Bradford, and at the close of his apprenticeship, though 
still a minor, was admitted to partnership with him in the printing 
and publishing business. In 1739-40 the firm published a number of 
books and pamphlets, some of which are still in existence, bearing 
on their title page the inscription, "Printed and sold by Andrew 
and William Bradford, at the Sign of The Bible, in Second Street, 
Philadelphia." The partnership lasted but little over a year, and 
at its dissolution William Bradford went to England to visit influ- 
ential and prosperous relatives there, with whom his family had 
been in constant and cordial correspondence since the coming of his 
grandparents in 1685, and to select materials and outfit for estab- 
lishing himself in the printing and publishing business in Philadel- 

Upper Dublin, Philadelphia county, was doubtless the site of 
the pioneer printing establishment of William Bradford in Penn- 



sylvania from 1685 to 1693. In addition to the publishing and sell- 
ing of books, he contemplated establishing a newspaper on his re- 
turn to Philadelphia. He was able to secure correspondents for 
his prospective newspaper who were in a position to furnish him 
with the latest news in reference to trade and on the all-absorbing 
topics of the latest acts of Parliament in reference to the Colonies, 
and the attitude of public men on the proposed legislation in refer- 
ence to them. His wisdom and foresight in this particular were 
destined to make his newspaper much more popular to the public 
than Dr. Franklin's "Pennsylvania Gazette," and its founding 
marked a new era in newspaper publishing in the New World. 

He returned to Philadelphia from England in 1742 with a supply 
of books, probably the largest of any bookseller in the middle colo- 
nies, and requisites for a well equipped printing office. In the 
"Pennsylvania Gazette" of July 8, 1742, he announced that he had 
"set up his new printing office in the house in which Andrew Brad- 
ford formerly lived on Second street, where printing was to be done 
at reasonable rates ; and that he purposed to publish shortly a Week- 
ly Newspaper entitled the 'Weekly Advertiser, or Pennsylvania 
Journal,' that may contain the most material as Avell as authentic 
news, foreign and domestic, correspondences being provided to 
carry on the same. In which paper gentlemen may have extracts 
of their letters published, containing matter to be communicated to 
the public. He further proposes a more exact way for country sub- 
scribers to have their papers than has heretofore been put in prac- 
tice." The house alluded to was on the west side of Second street, 
between Chestnut and Market. It bore the hereditary sign of ' ' The 
Bible," as did his second location in 1743 in the same block, at the 
corner of Black Horse alley, where was located his book store and 
printing office, and where the "Pennsylvania Journal" was issued 
for eleven years. His catalogue of books for the year 1742, "Sold 
by William Bradford at the Sign of The Bible, on Second street," 
was quite extensive, and consisted principally of books of a religious 
nature, that being an epoch of religious awakenings, the days of the 
Wesleys, Whitefield and Zinzendorf, all of whom had been in this 
country shortly before that time. He published several books dur- 
ing the years 1742-43, also of a religious nature, two of them by emi- 
nent Pennsylvania divines — Reverends Samuel Finley and Samuel 



The first number of William Bradford's newspaper, "The Penn- 
sylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser," was issued December 2, 
1742, and though the "Pennsylvania Gazette" had been published 
by Dr. Franklin for thirteen years, "The Journal" marked a new 
era in American journalism by widening the scope beyond the mere 
publication of the news, to at least a mild discussion of questions of 
the day, in the form of correspondence, which was soon followed by 
a wider and freer discussion of questions of politics, religion and 
science. It has been said of the "Pennsylvania Journal" that "it 
was one of the best printed, best edited, and most widely circulated 
papers of the century in this country. ' ' 

In 1744, Mr. Bradford published a book which established his rep- 
utation as one of the best printers in the Colonies. It was entitled: 
"Twenty-three Sermons upon The Chief End of Man, the Divine 
Authority of the Sacred Scriptures, the Being and Attributes of 
God, and the Doctrines of the Divinity. Preached at Philadelphia 
Ann. Dom. 1742 by Gilbert Tennent, A. M." 

Early in the same year Mr. Bradford was appointed "Printer to 
the King's Most Excellent Majesty for the Province of New Jer- 
sey." In that and the succeeding year he did a large amount of 
profitable work under this appointment, in the printing of the pro- 
ceedings of the Assembly, Governors' Proclamations, Treaties with 
the Indians, etc. ; and it incidentally brought him a large number of 
orders from the officers of the Province and others for books and 
stationery. In 1754 his establishment was again moved, this time 
to the southwest corner of Front and Market streets. 

In addition to conducting his newspaper, his book store and pub- 
lishing business, in 1757 he began the publication of a monthly mag- 
azine under the title of "The American Magazine and Monthly 
Chronicle for the British Colonies," one of the earliest literary and 
philosophical journals of the country. The first number was issued 
in October, 1757, and it received excellent support from the best 
people of the country. George Washington was a subscriber for 
four copies. Its editor is supposed to have been Dr. William Smith, 
Provost of the College of Philadelphia, though his name did not ap- 
pear as such; and Dr. Smith getting into trouble with the Pennsyl- 
vania Assembly in 1758, is ascribed as the reason for the suspension 
of the publication of the magazine after it had completed one vol- 



ume, in September, 1758, though it proved both popular and profita- 

"William Bradford died September 25, 1791, and was interred be- 
side his wife (Rachel, daughter of Thomas Budd), in the Second 
Presbyterian Churchyard, on Arch street, Philadelphia. The in- 
scription on his tombstone is as follows: 

In Memory of 


Who died September 25, 1791, 

Aged 72 years. 

He was born in New York 

And came to this city at an early age 

Where he established a press 

And published a newspaper as early as 1742. 

He was among the first 

To oppose the British Stamp Act in this City 

And though 

At an age which exempted him from Military Service 

He endured a Winter's Campaign 

And was at the Battles of Trenton and Princeton 

In the last of which he was Colonel of his Regiment. 

He was at Fort Mifflin 

When it was attacked by the British 

And throughout the whole war maintained the 

Character of a Brave Man and Firm Patriot. 

For want of space, it is impossible to reproduce Dr. Jordan's 
elaborate genealogical narratives, or his vivid portrayal of William 
Bradford's political and military activities, but the following may 
be added: 

"To no man in the Colonies was America more indebted for the 
repeal of the Stamp Act than to Colonel William Bradford. The 
influence of his 'Pennsylvania Journal' throughout the Colonies at 
that day was great, and in Philadelphia his ardor, perseverance and 
efficiency inspired and supported opposition in every rank. . . . 
He was an early advocate of the Union of the Colonies, placing at 
the head of 'The Journal' the figure of a snake cut into thirteen 
pieces and labeled with the inscription 'Unite or Die.' " 


The Missouri Centennial 

Compiled by Fenwick Y. Hedley, New York City 



UGUST 10th of the present year marked the Centennial 
Anniversary of the Admission of Missouri as a State 
of the American Union. Its history during that and the 
immediately preceding period would challenge the capa- 
bilities of the most astute historian and the most gifted poet. 

In tracing the origin and development of the State, it is a pleasant 
task to recall its then unseen beginnings in the opening up of the 
Mississippi river by Europeans and the events which followed in 
rapid succession — events containing within themselves the seeds of 
tremendous results affecting all Europe, and conspiring in an im- 
measurably large way to the building up of our own American Re- 
public. In all, romance intermingles with kingcraft and diplomacy, 
and ever and anon comes upon the stage some master character 
whose achievements lend force to the famous old phrase that "at 
the bottom of every great event is the life of a man." The history 
of Missouri begins with such a one. 

Than Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, there was no more bril- 
liant adventurer in that day so prolific of such characters. He came 
of a good family. Born in Rouen, France, in 1643, in early life he 
connected himself with the Jesuits, and by the act was deprived of 
his patrimony. Leaving the order, not on that account but for sake 
of adventure, at the age of twenty-three he went to Canada, where 
he obtained a grant of land, and founded the village of Lachine, 
at the famous rapids of that name. Governor Frontenac became 
his friend, and procured for him privileges under the French Court, 
and which enabled him to engage in the fur trade on a large scale, 
but this occupation was too ignoble for his great nature. Conceiv- 
ing a great scheme of explorations westward, perhaps to China, he 
obtained governmental authority, and took into company with him- 
self the Italian Henri de Tonti. They outfitted a little fleet at Ro- 
chelle, France, whence they sailed in the summer of 1638, with thirty 
sailors and mechanics. After establishing a trading post at the 



mouth of the Niagara river, La Salle and Tonti sailed through the 
lakes to Green Bay, now in Wisconsin, thence to the St. Joseph 
river, now in Michigan, thence to the Kankakee, and in 1GS0 estab- 
lished a trading post where now stands the city of Peoria, Illinois. 

Omitting mention of various of La Salle's expeditions, we note 
his leaving the Michigan region with a small party in December of 
1681. Reaching the Chicago river, he went on to the Illinois, then 
reaching the Mississippi, which he named River Colbert, in honor 
of his great French patron, and descended to its mouth. Joined by 
de Tonti, who had explored the great middle channel of the Mis- 
sissippi delta, the assembled companies listened reverently to La 
Salle as he proclaimed the whole Valley of the Mississippi and its 
tributary regions, a part of the French dominions under the name 
of Louisiana, in honor of their king. Then ihey reared a cross 
and a column, the latter bearing the arms of France and the inscrip- 
tion "Louis the Great, King of France and Navarre, April 9, 1682," 
and at the foot buried a lead plate inscribed with a similar record. 
The next year La Salle went to France, and received a patent grant- 
ing to him all the vast territory from the present State of Illinois 
to Mexico, and indefinitely westward, and was commissioned com- 
mandant or governor. In August, 1684, he began his return voyage, 
with four ships carrying two hundred and eighty people to inaugu- 
rate settlements. Dissensions broke out, and the immigrants landed 
near Matagorda Bay. Early in 1688, La Salle set out for the Illi- 
nois country, with a party of fifteen people, among whom were his 
brother and two nephews. On Trinity river, in the present State 
of Texas, a revolt broke out, in which one of La Salle's nephews was 
killed, and a few minutes afterward La Salle himself was similarly 
disposed of. Such was the fate of the great explorer whose vast 
domain was soon to pass away forever into the hands of an alien 
people who were to erect upon its unpopulated wilds sixteen Sov- 
ereign States of the present American Union. 

Following the death of La Salle and the extinguishment of his 
colonization scheme, French interest in its new possessions seemed 
to lag. In 1698 came into the Gulf of Mexico, Pierre le Moyne, Sieur 
d' Iberville, in command of two frigates, with two hundred colon- 
ists. He figures as "the founder of Louisiana," but his labors were 
few. He built a fort at what is now Biloxi, Mississippi, and this is 
accounted the first settlement in Louisiana. By 1702 there were 



similar settlements on Dauphin Island, near the entrance to Mobile 
Bay, and elsewhere — five in all, but their combined populations did 
not exceed four hundred. 

By 1712 the French government had determined upon real and 
permanent settlement of the Louisiana region, and on September 
14 of that year Louis XIV. granted to Anthony Crozat, a wealthy 
French merchant, "all the country drained by the waters empty- 
ing, directly or indirectly, into the Mississippi river." Crozat estab- 
lished trading-houses on the site of Montgomery, on the Alabama 
river; at Natchitoches, on the Red river; and at Natchez, in what 
is now the State of Mississippi. Crozat made heroic efforts, but 
after five years of large outlays and small returns, he resigned his 
patent, the "Mississippi Company" under the notorious John Law 
succeeding to his rights and privileges under the French govern- 
mental patronage. Law introduced a few thousand whites to settle 
in Louisiana proper, and about fifteen hundred Germans in Ar- 
kansas ; but he also brought the first slaves into that region, import- 
ed from Santo Domingo and others of the West Indies islands. In 
1732 the Mississippi Company resigned the country to the French 
crown. In 17G2 the French king ceded the territory to the King 
of Spain. "When Bonaparte became First Consul and actual ruler 
of France, he determined upon the re-establishment of the Louisiana 
Empire under French auspices, and in 1800 he procured the retro- 
cession of Louisiana, and the region was in French possession and 
under French authority until 1803, when it passed into the ownership 
of the United States by purchase. It then contained a population' 
of 85,000 whites and 10,000 negro slaves. The price paid was $15,- 

The American flag was formally raised in the city of New Orleans 
on December 20th, 1803. A division now took place into the Terri- 
tory of Orleans and the District of Louisiana. The former en- 
tered the American Union as the State of Louisiana on April 8th, 
1812, and here this paper leaves it. On June 4 following, the Dis- 
trict of Louisiana became the District of Missouri, and became 
attached to the Territory of Indiana for governmental purposes. It 
then comprised what is now the State of Arkansas, and all the region 
northward and laying in the "Louisiana Purchase" Tract. 

What is now substantially the State of Missouri first comes into 
notice in 1720, when the discovery of lead drew to it a multitude 



of adventurers. In 1755 its first town was founded, Ste. Genevieve, 
on the Mississippi river, with a population of less than five hundred. 
About the same time, St. Louis figures as a fur-trading post, with 
about eight hundred inhabitants. 1 On July 5th, 1778, George Rogers 
Clark, acting under the authority of Governor Patrick Henry, of 
Virginia, attacked and captured from the British the village of 
Kaskaskia, on the river of that name, within five miles of the Mis- 
sissippi, and thus saved St. Louis from capture. 2 In 1812, when 
Louisiana became a State, the population of what is now Missouri 
was about 22,000. In 1817 the numbers had increased to 60,000, 
and admission to the American Union was sought, but owing to 
political conditions, an incident of which was the famous "Mis- 
souri Compromise," such admission was not effected until August 
10, 1821. 

Such an historical synopsis as the foregoing may be found in 
fairly connected form in very few volumes, if indeed in any that is 
readily accessible to the ordinary reader. But with all this infor- 
mation, the real history is meager for want of that which gives to 
the reader a vivid appreciation of the actors in a remote past, of 
their surroundings, of their fellows; With such particulars, his- 
torians seldom deal. We know of none to compare with Macaulay 
in those chapters of his "History of England" in which he depicts 
the everyday life of everyday people during the period of the Com- 
monwealth and the Restoration. Usually we need to turn to fiction 
such as Sir Walter Scott's volumes dealing with Scottish history; 3 
or to Thackeray's monumental "Henry Esmond" and "The Vir- 
ginians;" and in our own day to "The Crisis" of Churchill. 

In comparatively recent years such want of knowledge as is above 
complained of, has been well supplied through the agency of a con- 
siderable number of State and other historical magazines which have 
delved into ancient records, family letters, personal diaries, tavern 
blotters, etc., and afforded to the reading public information that 

'St. Louis, and particularly Ste. Genevieve, to this day bear evidences of their 
French origin, many of the original French family names being preserved in descend- 
ants from the original emigrants. The writer of this narrative knows of such dating 
as far back as 1852, with whom he was then familiarly acquainted. 

'Kaskaskia is in Illinois, which was then known as Illinois County of Virginia, or 
the Illinois Country. 

'The compiler of this paper has noted with surprise that amid the hundreds of crit- 
ical papers and notes which went into print during the recent Scott Anniversary, he did 
not observe a single reference to "The Fortunes of Nigel," a most illuminating picture 
of the times in which the Scottish James, son of Mary Queen of Scots, came to the 
English throne. 



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otherwise would have never come to the light. A most notable publi- 
cation of this character is "The Missouri Historical Review" for 
January of the present year, a centennial number commemorative of 
the hundredth anniversary of the Admission of Missouri as a State 
of the American Union, and compiled by Mr. Floyd C. Shoemaker, 
secretary of the State Historical Society of Missouri, who presents 
his work with the following pregnant foreword: 

"In the Missouri tavern the pioneer settler and the wandering 
stranger were first welcomed to our soil. In this early wayside inn 
business was transacted, religion preached, duels decided, politics 
discussed and frequently settled, towns founded, courts convened, 
and hospitality dispensed. It served as home and mart, court and 
forum. An institution which flourished in Missouri a century past, 
its romance is still preserved in story and legend. The Missouri 
tavern is almost extinct. Conditions produced it that will never 
return. It was the product of a pioneer community, peopled by an 
honest, fearless, hospitable folk. Ratiocination was stranger to its 
walls, but common sense, wit and logic there found place. The 
author of 'The Missouri Tavern' has drawn aside the curtain of 
history and permitted us to share bread and board with our fore- 
fathers who made possible our heritage and who founded a 'free 
and independent republic, by the name of The State of Missouri.' " 

The foregoing extract has reference to the leading article in "The 
Review," entitled "The Missouri Tavern," from the pen of Mr. 
Walter B. Stevens, of nationwide fame as author and journalist, 
and the best authority of the present day on Missouri history. 4 In 
what follows we draw freely upon Mr. Stevens' paper, but neces- 
sarily delete much on account of want of space ; hence the reader 
will understand that lack of connection in certain instances is not 
the fault of the author quoted, but due to the necessity of the occa- 
sion. Mr. Stevens says: 

It is told of the wife of the first Missouri editor that no one in 
need of food or shelter was turned away from her door. Mrs. Sa- 
rah Charless lived to be eighty-one years of age. Pier home was in 
Missouri more than half a century. St. Louis was notably lacking 
in taverns when Joseph Charless came to start the first newspaper 

'Other most valuable papers in "The Review" are "A Century of Missouri Agricul- 
ture," by F. B. Mumford, dean of the College of Agriculture of the University of Mis- 
souri;" "A Century of Education in Missouri," by C. A. Phillips, dean of the Central 
Missouri State Teachers' College, and head of the Department of Education; "A Cen- 
tury of Missouri Politics," by C. H. McClure, head of the Central Missouri State Teach- 
ers' College; and "One Hundred Years of Banking in Missouri," by Breckenridge Jones, 
a well skilled financier. 



west of Hie Mississippi. Strangers, whose credentials or appear- 
ances justified, were made welcome at private houses not only in St. 
Louis but in the home of Missouri pioneers generally. Thus, a 
hundred years ago, was begotten that spirit of hospitality which be- 
came a marked characteristic of the Missourian and which gave the 
Missouri tavern distinction. The trait was a natural evolution of 
two influential elements in the pioneer population — the French who 
were the first families of Missouri, and the Virginians and Ken- 
tuckians who came in great numbers with the dawn of Statehood. 

To accommodate newcomers Mr. and Mrs. Charless opened their 
house, which was a large one on Fifth and Market streets, St. 
Louis. A sign swung from a post; it bore the announcement "En- 
tertainment by Joseph Charless." With the house was a large gar- 
den, one of the finest in St. Louis, occupying half of the block bound- 
ed by Fifth, Market, Fourth and Walnut streets. Therein fruit and 
vegetables were grown for a table which became famous. In a card, 
Mr. Charless told through the "Missouri Gazette" that at his house 
strangers "will find every accommodation but whiskey." Mrs. 
Charless was one of seven women who, with two men, organized 
the first Presbyterian church in Missouri. 

Twelve years Joseph Charless edited and published that first Mis- 
souri newspaper. At the top of the title page he printed in black 
type his slogan: — "Truth without Fear." And he lived up to it, 
defying Benton, carrying a big stick and dodging bullets. Then he 
retired from journalism and devoted himself to the tavern with his 
announcement as above. 

The Missouri tavern was of its own class. Identified with the 
vocation of tavernkeeping in Missouri's pioneer days are the names 
of some of the best known and most highly esteemed families in the 
State's history. Taverns were established for "accommodation" in 
the true sense of the word. Immigration came in successive high 
tides. In not a few cases, homes were opened as a matter of private 
"accommodation" which led to public "entertainment," — as in the 
case of the Charless family. About the wide fireplace the host and 
his family visited with the travelers. They listened to the latest 
news from the outside world and they gave the desired informa- 
tion about local conditions and advantages for settlement. Court 
sessions were held in the taverns. Counties and towns were organ- 
ized and political caucuses were held in Missouri taverns. In brief, 
the Missouri tavern w T as the center of public life during those pio- 
neer decades. In no other State does it appear from somewhat 
cursory investigation that the tavern filled such an important part 
in early history. 

In a tavern, Missouri, the State, was born. The first legislature 
met in that hotel. The first governor, McNair, and the first lieuten- 
ant-governor, Ashley, were inaugurated there. The first United 



States Senators, Barton and Benton, were elected there. In ac- 
cordance with the fitness of things, that tavern was called the Mis- 
souri. Begun in 1817 and finished two years later, the Missouri Ho- 
tel was ready just in time for its place in the history of the State's 
making. Major Biddle became the owner. He went east and ob- 
tained the best landlord he could find and induce to come west. The 
Missouri was opened with equipment and appointments which made 
it for more than a generation the pride of the Mississippi Valley. 

The Missouri Hotel was the scene of banquets and balls. There 
his admiring fellow citizens entertained Barton with a grand din- 
ner when he came back from Washington after a speech which made 
him the great Missourian of that day. Benton was "second fiddle." 
St. Patrick's days were celebrated at the Missouri, for newcomers 
from Ireland were among the foremost and most enterprising busi- 
ness men of St. Louis in that generation. Expeditions were planned 
at the Missouri. Principals and seconds met there to arrange meet- 
ings on Bloody Island. General William Henry Harrison, after- 
wards president, General Zacbary Taylor, afterwards president, 
and General Winfleld Scott, who wanted to be but was not president, 
were entertained at the Missouri hotel. 

The oddest tavern in Missouri was not built with hands. It was a 
cave, forty feet wide and twenty feet high, in St. Charles couuty. 
Boatmen steered their pirogues and long-horns to the bank and took 
shelter in that cave from the driving storms on the Missouri. They 
called it "The Tavern." On the walls, in those days, were to be 
seen the rudely carved names of many who had found refuge there 
and who had registered. Drawings and carvings of birds and 
beasts, said to have been done by the Indians, were the mural deco- 
rations of this nature tavern. A stream of considerable size empties 
into the Missouri near this cave, and at the present day is known as 
Tavern creek. 

To Van Bibber's tavern at Loutre Lick came Colonel David Craig 
when he immigrated to Missouri in 1817. When Long's expedition 
was on the way up the Missouri one hundred years ago to discover 
and map "The Great American Desert" as it appeared in the geog- 
raphies for two generations, a stop was made at Van Bibber's. 

Van Bibber married a granddaughter of Daniel Boone. He had 
two sprightly daughters, Fanny and Matilda. His first tavern was 
of logs, and as business developed Van Bibber added other cab- 
ins. Loutre Lick became the first Missouri spa. The earliest set- 
tlers went there for bodily ailments which were relieved by the 
waters. Later Loutre Lick became a widely known health resort. 
Benton visited there and told in Washington of the beneficial results. 
He advertised Loutre Lick so enthusiastically that Henry Clay re- 
ferred in a speech to the Missouri senator's "Bethesda." Wash- 
ington Irving, with his traveling companions, the Swiss count, M. 



de Portales, and the Englishman Latrobe, stopped at Loutre Lick. 
He was so pleased with the surroundings that he told Van Bibber 
"When I get rich I am coming here to buy this place and build a 
nice residence here." But Irving spent so much time abroad that 
he never carried out his impulse to become a Missourian. 

A power to be reckoned with along the Missouri-Kansas border 
in the fifties was Uncle John, who kept the Mimms Hotel in Kansas 
City. Red Legs and Border Ruffians, Jayhawkers and slave drivers, 
stopped with Uncle John. They were entertained' impartially, and, 
strange to tell, the peace was preserved among these warring ele- 
ments so long as they remained his guests at the Mimms Hotel. 
Uncle John was an ordained minister of the Missionary Baptist 
church. He was from Kentucky, a fearless man, a character of that 
peculiar reserved force which made other men feel peaceful in his 

In the First General Assembly of Missouri there was a man who 
called himself "Ringtail Painter." His name was Palmer, and his 
cabin home was in the Grand River valley. While the first legisla- 
ture was holding its sessions in the hotel, Palmer insisted on occu- 
pying the same bed with Governor McNair for one night so that, 
as he said, he could go back and tell his friends of Fishing river 
that he had "slept with the Governor of Missouri." 

This first meeting of the legislature in the hotel was enlivened 
by one of the most unparliamentary scenes in the legislative history 
of Missouri. During a sitting of the senate, Duff Green and Andrew 
McGirk became involved in a hot argument. McGirk threw a pewter 
inkstand at Green. The two men started a fist fight. Governor 
McNair came forward to interfere. He caught hold of Green and 
was pulling him away when Palmer grabbed the governor and 
shouted: "Stand back governor; you are no more in a fight than 
any other man. I know that much law. I am at home in this busi- 
ness. Give it to him, Duff. Give it to him." 

Thomas H. Benton owed his first election to the Senate to tavern 
environment. His friends had been able to muster only a tie vote 
against the opposition. And one of Benton's votes was that of 
Daniel Ralls, who lay in the last stages of fatal illness. Benton's 
friends won over one vote from the opposition, giving the necessary 
majority if the dying man could be kept alive and brought in when 
the legislature met on Monday. The fact that the legislature was 
meeting in the hotel and that the dying man was in a room upstairs 
made the plans of Benton's friends practicable though desperate. 
The sick man was carried down stairs by four stout negro ser- 
vants, and voted for Benton. He died shortly after being taken back 
to his room. 

When St. Charles became the temporary capital of the new 
State of Missouri, the tavernkeepers made good their reputation for 



square dealing by furnishing the members of the General Assembly 
board at $2.50 a week. At that time pork was a cent and a half 
a pound; venison hams, twenty-five cents each; eggs, five cents a 
dozen; honey, five cents a gallon; but coffee cost a dollar a pound. 

In the "Gazette" of November 15, 1817, appeared this "Notice" 
over the name of Benjamin Emmons : "The subscriber gives infor- 
mation that he keeps public entertainment at the village of St. 
Charles, in the house lately occupied for that purpose by N. Simonds, 
Esq., where the hungry and thirsty can be accommodated and the 
weary find rest." 

The popularity which Mr. Emmons achieved was well shown later 
in 1820, when his fellow citizens elected him a member of the con- 
vention which framed the first constitution of the State of Missouri. 
The selection of Mr. Emmons was the more notable in that he was 
the only delegate elected who favored some degree of restriction 
on slavery in the new State. Mr. Emmons had been president of 
the last territorial legislative council. Later, after the organiza- 
tion of the State government, he was a member of the State senate, 
and notable for his independence of opinion. Descendants of this 
Benjamin Emmons have been in every one of the wars in which the 
United States has been engaged. Two of them, Charles Shepard 
Emmons and Wallis K. Emmons, were in the World War, serving in 

Duden, whose marvelous letters set Germany afire for migration 
to Missouri, told that on the south bank of the Missouri, opposite 
St. Charles, "there lives a jolly Frenchman who manages the ferry, 
is postmaster and an innkeeper. His name is Chauvin ; he was born 
in Canada. He told me that Prince Wuertemberg had spent the 
night with him some time ago." Duden was mistaken about the 
nativity of this tavern-keeper. Lafreniere J. Chauvin was a native 
of St. Louis. He bore the name of the leader of the first revolution 
for freedom on American soil, the revolt against Spanish domina- 
tion at New Orleans. The Chauvins came from France to New Or- 
leans and thence to Ste. Genevieve and later were among the first 
families of St. Louis. Lafreniere J. Chauvin was of the second or 
third generation. He was born in St. Louis in 1794. A daughter 
of this Chauvin was the wife of one of the Emmons family of St. 

Charles Joseph Latrobe, an Englishman who accompanied Wash- 
ington Irving in his travels through Missouri and who wrote the 
"Rambler in North America," told of the party stopping at the 
tavern opposite St. Charles, "where we found shelter for the night 
in a little French inn, which, with its odd, diminutive bowling green, 
skittle ground, garden plots, and arbors, reminded us more of the 
Old World than anything we had seen for many weeks." 

Judge Quarles, an uncle of Mark Twain, kept tavern in Paris. A 



guest came to the landlord with the request for a clean towel in the 
common washroom. "Sir," said the judge, with some show of re- 
proof, "two hundred men have wiped on that towel and you are the 
first to complain." 

An impressive structure for its generation was the Buchanan tav- 
ern in Florida. It was of brick and equipped on a scale of cost 
which befitted a community with strong hopes of being the county 
seat of one of the rich counties of Missouri. The time came when 
Florida and Paris engaged in a county seat contest, one of the most 
exciting in the history of the State. A compromise settlement was 
offered. It was proposed to make two counties out of Monroe, with 
Paris and Florida as county seats. One of the Florida boomers 
was John Marshall Clemens, father of Mark Twain. The compro- 
mise was defeated. Major Howell and Dr. Flannigan were mem- 
bers of the legislature and both favorable to Paris. They got 
through the act cutting off a slice of Monroe county and adding it 
to Shelby. This reduced Monroe to the extent that it spoiled the 
argument for two counties. It also made Paris the more natural 
location for the county seat. This was a great victory for Paris, but 
the people who were moved into Shelby long insisted that they be- 
longed in Monroe. 

Housing the members of the General Assembly for the first ses- 
sion held in Jefferson City was a problem. The new capitol was 
ready before the taverns were. John R. Musick, in his "Stories of 
Missouri," says that one man hung out his sign to entertain when 
all that he had, apparently, was a board structure with office in front 
and dining room and kitchen in the rear. There was no floor. A 
legislator applied for board and lodging. "Certainly," said the 
affable tavern-keeper. "That is what I am here for. Plenty of 
good rooms and beds. I will give you Number 15." After supper 
the legislator said he would go to bed. The landlord picked up a 
candle, led the way outdoors and around back of the wooden build- 
ing where there were several tents. In front of one of the tents 
was a piece of board stuck in the ground and painted "Number 15." 
Inside of the tent was a cot. 

Morgan B. "White was sent by Callaway county to the legislature 
in the thirties. He found lodgings in the house of a widow, who 
assigned him a bed with four high posts and heavy damask curtains. 
When it came time to go to bed, Uncle Morgan said he could not 
imagine how he was to get in. He had never seen that kind of a bed 
and he didn't want to ask questions. So he pulled a table and chair 
to the side of the bed, climbed over the top of the curtains. Instead 
of stopping when he reached the feathers, he went through and 
struck the floor. 

The combination of tavern keeping and preaching was not un- 
common. Rev. Andrew Monroe at one time kept a tavern near what 



is now Danville. This was the place where another preacher, a ten- 
derfoot in Missouri, acquired the name of "Gourdhead" Prescott. 
He stopped at the tavern for dinner. There being no one else to 
take care of his horse, the minister went out to the barn. There 
he found a heap of gourds, common in Missouri in that day. The 
minister mistook the gourds for a new kind of pumpkin, and gave a 
mess to the horse. Thereafter he was known as "Gourdhead" Pres- 

Rev. Andrew Monroe was one of the first prohibitionists in Mis- 
souri. The governor of the State was a guest at the Monroe tavern 
and called for a stimulant. Waiving his own scruples out of con- 
sideration for his distinguished visitor, Preacher Monroe sent to the 
store for a bottle of whiskey. And thereby he created a precedent 
which conflicted with his strict enforcement of church rules. Some- 
time afterwards, Preacher Monroe met David Dryden carrying a 
jug. Dryden had settled in Montgomery county recently. He was 
a steward in the Methodist church. He had built a mill, a horse mill, 
an industry much needed. Altogether he was a man of affairs. But 
the parson was no respecter of persons when it came to church dis- 
cipline. He eyed the suspicious looking package and asked: "Well, 
Brother Dryden, what is that you have in your jug 1 ?" To Dryden 
came in a flash the recollection of what he had heard of Tavern- 
keeper Monroe's experience with the governor. "It's some 
whiskey I have just purchased for the governor, who is at my 
house." The preacher smiled and passed on. 

When Lafayette was entertained in St. Louis he was astonished 
to see approaching him an old man in the full uniform worn by the 
French at the surrender of Yorktown. He was delighted when the 
old soldier saluted stiffly but correctly. He was moved deeply when 
Alexander Bellissime identified himself as a native of Toulon who 
had come over with Lafayette's forces to fight for American inde- 
pendence. After the War of the Revolution, Bellissime had settled 
in St. Louis and was conducting a tavern which was the popular 
resort of the river men. He was known to everybody as "Old 
Alexie." His tavern was on Second street near Myrtle, in the 
French section. After Lafayette's departure, the veteran, who had 
been embraced publicly by his old commander, was in higher esteem 
than ever. He lived to be eighty-seven. On the red letter days of 
St. Louis "Old Alexie" did not fail to appear in that well preserved 
uniform and the three-cornered cockaded hat. When "Old Alexie" 
died, Captain Easton turned out the crack military company, the St. 
Louis Grays, and gave the veteran what would have been his heart's 
desire — a military funeral. 

Audubon, the world-famed naturalist, in his travels about Mis- 
souri in the early forties, was impressed with the abundance of 
natural food supplies, and with the cheapness of things eatable. 



Ho wrote to James Hall: "The markets here abound in all the 
good things of the land and of nature's creation. To give you an 
idea of this, read the following items: Grouse, two for a York 
shilling; three chickens for the same; turkeys, wild or tame, twen- 
ty-five cents ; flour, two dollars a barrel ; butter, six pence for the 
best ; fresh and really good beef, three to four cents ; veal, the same ; 
pork, two cents ; venison hams, large and dried, fifteen cents each ; 
potatoes, ten cents a bushel; ducks, three for a shilling; wild 
geese, ten cents each; canvasback ducks, a shilling a pair; veget- 
ables for the asking as it were." 

In a land of such plenty, Audubon felt that the tavern rates were 
altogether too high. He complained: "And only think, in the 
midst of this abundance and cheapness, we are paying nine dollars 
a week at our hotel, the Glasgow; and at the Planters' Ave were asked 
ten dollars. We are at the Glasgow hotel, and will leave the day 
after tomorrow, as it is too good for our purses." 

Criticism of the management of those pioneer hotels was attended 
with some risk. John Graves kept the first tavern in Chillicothe. 
He started "the tavern house" as he called it, so early in the his- 
tory of the community that many consider him the founder of the 
city. Graves did the best he knew how, and he thought that was 
good enough. One day a commercial traveler grumbled about the 
cooking. Graves caught the critic by the collar, jerked him out of his 
chair at the table and kicked him out the front door. "The blamed 
skunk," he said, "insulted my boarders and I won't stand for it. 
My boarders eat my fare and like it ; and when a man makes fun 
of my grub, it is the same as saying they haven't sense enough to 
know good grub from bad. I am bound to protect my boarders." 

In the earliest days of the American colonies, the house of pub- 
lic entertainment was often known as "the ordinary." But when 
that term went out of use, Americans did not take kindly to the 
English name of "inn." "Tavern," of good full volume of vowel 
sound, was adopted, and it was applied almost universally in Mis- 
souri, outside of the principal centers of population, as settlement 
spread. When a Missouri community reached the metropolitan 
class, "tavern" gradually gave place to "hotel" or "house." But 
tavern continued to be the popular term along the rivers and the 
stagecoach routes 

Upon a Missouri tavern was based one of the largest of the lot- 
tery enterprises which excited the American people about the time 
of the Civil War. The Patee house was the name. W T ith two acres 
of ground adjoining it in the city of St. Joseph, this building, owned 
by John Patee, was disposed of by raffle in 1863. The property, 
which included all of the furniture and fixtures, was valued at $140,- 
000. The tickets were two dollars. They bore the stipulation that 
$25,000 of the receipts from the sale of tickets would "be appor- 



tioned between those cities and towns in proportion to the number of 
tickets sold therein, the amount to be placed in the hands of the 
authorities for any benevolent object they may deem proper." 

Missouri hotel hospitality was almost the undoing of a President 
of the United States. President Andrew Johnson was escorted to 
St. Louis, September 8, 1866, by a fleet of thirty-six steamboats 
which met his party at Alton. With the President were General 
Grant, Admiral Farragut, Secretary of State Seward and General 
Hancock. Andrew Johnson was the first President of the United 
States to visit Missouri. At the Lindell Hotel a welcoming address 
was made by Mayor Thomas, and hospitality was extended. Pres- 
ident Johnson responded. The speeches were made from the por- 
tico over the main entrance on Washington avenue. A reception 
followed in the drawing room, with more hospitality and another 
speech by the President. 

From the Lindell, the presidential party was taken to the South- 
ern for more hospitality and more speechmaking. In the evening 
the banquet was given, with a menu that occupied half a column in 
the newspapers. President Johnson spoke again at considerable 
length. These St. Louis speeches were used by the House of Rep- 
resentatives in the prosecution of the important charges. L. L. 
Walbridge, who reported the speeches, was summoned to Washing- 
ton to testify in the trial to the accuracy of the report. The speech 
which gave the most offense to the Republican party in Congress was 
the one delivered from the Walnut street front of the Southern 
shortly before the banquet. Stimulated by the hospitality of the 
day and by encouraging interruptions of the audience, the President 
used very bitter language referring to his controversy with Con- 
gress. It was at St. Louis that the President described his tour as 
"swinging round the circle." 

A fine representative of the type of Missouri landlords was 
"Weed" Marshall, who furnished "entertainment" at Mayview for 
twenty-nine years. "Weed" was the familiar name by which the 
traveling public knew him. The proper initials were "J. W." 
Marshall was courteous to a punctilious degree, but it did not do 
to presume upon his good nature. A young traveling man left a 
Call for three o'clock in the morning and in a rather unpleasant 
manner impressed the importance of it. Marshall had no night 
clerk and sat up to make sure the guest did not miss the train. At 
three o'clock to the minute he pounded on the door. A grunt was 
the response. "Get up;" shouted Marshall. "It's three o'clock." 
"I've changed my mind," growled the traveling man. "I'm going 
to stay and take a later train." "No, you're not," said Marshall. 
"Confound you. You get up and get out this minute. You can't 
fool me." And the young man left on his early train. 

Foreigners commented upon the independent character of the 



American tavernkeeper. When Lafayette made his triumphal tour 
of this country in 1824, his party stopped at fifty taverns. One who 
was of the party wrote: "We were received by the landlord with 
perfect civility but without the slightest shade of obsequiousness. 
The deportment of the innkeeper was manly, courteous, and even 
kind, but there was that in his air which sufficiently proved that 
both parties were expected to manifest the same qualities." 

Lieutenant Francis Hall, an Englishman, traveling in this coun- 
try in 1817, said: "The innkeepers of America are, in most vil- 
lages, what we call vulgarly, topping men — field officers of military 
or militia, with good farms attached to their taverns, so that they 
are apt to think what, perhaps, in a new settled country is not far 
wide of the truth, that travelers rather receive than confer a favor 
by being accommodated at their homes. The daughters officiate at 
tea and breakfast, and generally wait at dinner." 

James Stewart, a Scotchman, who wrote "Three Years in North 
America," devoting his attention to "a faithful and candid repre- 
sentation of the facts which the author observed and noted in the 
places where they presented themselves" — those were his words 
— said: "We arrived in St. Louis on Sunday, the 25th of April, 
(1830) on so cold a morning that the first request I made on reaching 
the City Hotel, in the upper part of the town, was for a fire, which 
was immediately granted. The hotel turned out a very comfortable 
one. It contains a great deal of accommodation. The only incon- 
venience I felt arose from the people not being accustomed, as seems 
generally the case in the western country, to place water basins and 
a towel in every bedroom. The system of washing at some place 
near the well is general, but the waiters or chambermaids never re- 
fuse to bring everything to the bedroom that is desired. It is, how- 
ever, so little the practice to bring a washing apparatus to the bed- 
rooms that they are apt to forget a general direction regularly to 
do so. We had a great quantity of fine poultry at this house ; and 
the table, upon the whole, was extremely well managed." 

Mellish, an English traveler, gave high praise to American tav- 
erns. He told of one place he visited where there were sixty houses, 
of which seven were taverns. He described the breakfast table on 
which there were: "tablecloth, tea tray, teapot, milkpot, bowls, 
cups, sugar tongs, tea spoons, castors, plates, knives, forks, tea, 
sugar, cream, bread, butter, steak, eggs, cheese, potatoes, beets, salt, 
vinegar, pepper — all for twenty-five cents." 

In his "American Notes" and "Martin Chuzzlewit," Charles 
Dickens with his severe criticisms rasped the pride of Americans 
and set this country by the ears after his visit in 1842. But Mr. 
Dickens was well pleased with his experience at a famous Missouri 
hotel: "On the fourth day after leaving Louisville, we reached 
St. Louis. We went to a large hotel called the Planters' House, 



lilt like an English hospital, with long passages and bare walls, 
id skylights above the doors for free circulation of air. There 
ere a great many boarders in it, and as many lights sparkled and 
listened from the windows down into the streets below when we 
rove up, as if it had been illuminated on some occasion for rejoicing. 
; is an excellent house and the proprietors have most bountiful no- 
ons of providing creature comforts. Dining alone with my wife 
j her own room one day, I counted fourteen dishes upon the 
ible at once." 

Almost contemporaneous with Missouri statehood was J. S. Hal- 
ead, of Breckenridge, who celebrated his one hundredth birthday 
. 1918; he had been eighty years a resident of Missouri. In his 
)unger days he was on close relations with Henry Clay. He 
irried a cane presented to him by Clay, who had received it as a 
ft from Senator Jenifer of Maryland. The cane had a history. 
he Maryland senator brought it from an olive tree near the burial 
ace of Cicero. He gave it to Mr. Clay on the occasion of the 
tter's speech expounding the Missouri Compromise. One day a 
)g attacked Clay on the street in Washington. Defending him- 
ilf with his cane, Clay hit a fence and broke the cane. He tried to 
ive it repaired but was dissatisfied with the result and passed the 
storic stick along to his young friend, Halstead. At the observ- 
lce of his centennial, Mr. Halstead told a correspondent of the 
Kansas City Star" this tavern story as he had it from Mr. Clay: 
An English nobleman traveling in the United States called upon 
'r. Clay. He stopped at a tavern, having with him his valet. The 
vernkeeper noticed that the valet seemed to keep at a distance but 
d not take into consideration any difference in station. "When it 
ime to go to bed, the tavernkeeper showed milord and the valet to 
Le same room. The nobleman protested. He said: "But I am 
)t accustomed to being in the same room with my valet." 
An historic hotel in Kansas City was known variously as the 
r estern, the American and the Gillis. It was built by Benoit 
roost in 18-19, and was on the river front, between Delaware and 
r yandotte streets. In two years, 1S56 and 1857, there were 27,000 
^rivals at the hotel, which was enlarged by additions until it was 
l architectural curiosity. In May, 1856, this hotel was the hiding 
ace of Governor A. H. Eeeder, of Kansas, when he was a fugitive, 
ying to escape from the Missourians. Friends disguised the gov- 
•nor as a laborer and gave him an ax to carry. In this way they 
)t him out of the hotel and out of town. II. W. Chiles kept the hotel 
; that time. He was a strong pro-slavery man, and became the 
ndlord of the Gillis house to save it from destruction. The prop- 
•ty had been owned by the New England Emigrant Aid Society of 
oston, and was intended to be operated to encourage migration 
} anti-slavery settlers to Kansas in order to make that a free 



State. It became known among Missonrians as "The Free State 
Hotel." As the border troubles increased, the Emigrant Aid So- 
ciety, fearing that the property would be destroyed, put it in the 
hands of Chiles under a lease. 

Pro-slavery travelers made another historic hotel their stopping 
place in Kansas City. That was the Farmers' Hotel, built in 1856 
and run by E. N. McGee, a leader in the pro-slavery party. "The 
Wayside Inn" was the first name of this tavern. The location was 
on Sixteenth street, between the river landing and Westport. Over- 
land stages started from the Gillis House. The purchase of the 
Gillis for the Boston people was made by S. C. Pomeroy, afterwards 
a United States senator from Kansas. Pomeroy came out with the 
first party of anti-slavery immigrants from New England. The 
colonizing of Kansas was planned on such a scale that it seemed 
to the leaders in the movement necessary to have headquarters in 
Kansas City. This investment by the New Englanders, in 1854, 
had much to do with inflaming the Missourians, arousing them to the 
magnitude of the Boston intentions. 

About the time that the New Englanders began coming in numbers 
to Kansas City, Thomas II. Benton and his son-in-law, John C. Fre- 
mont, arrived by boat and stopped at the hotel. They were on one 
of the strangest business enterprises of that period. Among those 
who met the visitors and discussed the project with them was Dr. 
Johnston Lykins. The wife of Dr. Lykins, afterwards the wife of 
George C. Bingham, the Missouri artist, told this: 

"Benton and Fremont had arrived in order to complete arrangements for an experi- 
ment with camels as beasts of burden in crossing the plains during the hot season. Colo- 
nel Benton entered heartily into the plan and gave his assistance in every way possible. 
He thought that camels would stand the travel over the sandy plains better than oxen 
or horses. Owing to the shortness of the season in this northern latitude the project 
failed, although camels were imported for the purpose. Late in the evening Dr. Lykins 
returned to the house to inform me that he had invited the gentlemen to dine with us 
the following day. Colonel Benton and Mr. Fremont came, also Lieutenant Head, and 
the day was long to be remembered. The conversation was mainly upon the great possi- 
bilities of the West. At the conclusion of the dinner, we stepped out upon the porch, 
which commanded a delightful view of the river and surrounding country. Colonel Ben- 
ton appeared in the height of good spirits and turning to me said: 'Mrs. Lykins, you will 
take a trip to California on one of the camels, won't you?" 

"'Hardly,' I replied, laughing, 'I would prefer a more comfortable mode of travel.' 

"The great statesman's face grew solemn. As if in a spirit of prophecy, he said: 
'You are a very young woman, and you will live to see the day a railroad will cross the 
plains and mountains to the Pacific coast.' 

" 'Colonel Benton,' I replied, 'with all due reverence to you as a prophet, your pre- 
diction is as visionary as a trip to the moon.' 

" 'I will not live to see the prophecy verified, but the next generation will,' he re- 
sponded firmly. That was the last visit of Colonel Benton to Kansas City. The party 
left by steamboat for St. Louis on the evening of the same day." 

From the article on "A Century of Education in Missouri," by 
Mr. C. A. Phillips, in the same issue of "The Missouri Historical 
Review," is taken the following: 



The secondary schools of Missouri would be classified broadly as 
academies and high schools. Very early the academies were organ- 
ized throughout the State. Some of these academies were chartered 
by the State, and others were merely corporations of various kinds. 
The early incorporated academies were : Jackson, chartered in 1820, 
in Cape Girardeau county ; the St. Charles and Franklin academies, 
1820; Louisiana Academy, 1822; St. Mary's, 1822; Potosi, in Wash- 
ington county, 1824; Ste. Genevieve, 1824; Boonville Academy, 
1825; and Fayette Academy, in Howard county, 1825. They were 
all organized primarily on the historical background of the English 
public schools. It was estimated by Dexter that there were in the 
State in 1850 not less than 204 of these academies and that there 
were enrolled in them not less than 8,000 students. There were also 
organized many female seminaries, some of them being opened as 
early as 1820. Among the earlier may be mentioned : Elizabeth Anil, 
at Lexington, in 1820 ; Lindenwood, at St. Charles, in 1830 ; Howard 
Payne, at Fayette, in 1834. Very early some military academies 
were organized too, or rather grafted on the form of the old time 

At the present time, except for certain religious organizations, 
the academies and seminaries of all kinds have nearly passed out of 
existence. From several hundred they have dropped down to a 
score. A number of the female seminaries are now the junior col- 
leges of the State, of which there are at the present time sixteen; 
namely, Central College for Women, Christian College for Women, 
Cottey College for Women, Culver-Stockton College, Hardin Col- 
lege for Women, Howard-Payne College for Women, Kansas City 
Junior College, LaGrange College, Lindenwood College for Women, 
Marvin College, Missouri Christian College, St. Joseph Junior Col- 
lege, Stephens Junior College, Synodical College, the Principia, and 
William Woods College. There are only three surviving military 
academies, namely: Kemper Military, at Boonville, Missouri Mili- 
tary, at Mexico, and Wentworth Military, at Lexington. 

The American high school is really one of the most marked con- 
tributions to the spirit of democracy. There are no European insti- 
tutions which correspond to it or parallel it. It is an outgrowth of 
the yearnings of the common people for the higher forms of educa- 
tion. Moreover, it is the gateway through which the people enter 
into the higher professional studies in the colleges and universities. 
The first high school in the State was organized in the city of St. 
Louis in the winter of 1852-53. In fact, the school was opened the 
first Monday in February in 1853, with seventy pupils. These pupils 
were required to pass special examinations after a completion of the 
elementary schools, as this was not thought a definite qualification 
for secondary education. The second high school was opened in St. 
Joseph in 1866, and the third in Kansas City in 1867. However, the 



high schools have no legal status in any of the constitutions of the 
State. They legally exist on a statutory basis at the present time, 
and this basis was not very firmly established until 1903, when pro- 
vision was made for the State inspection of schools by the State sup- 
erintendent or a deputy in connection with his office. 

The development of high schools was at first very slow. In 1899 
Superintendent Coleman reported twenty-seven four-year high 
schools, thirty-eight three-year high schools and sixty two-year high 
schools. The university list for 1890 included nineteen high schools 
and five academies, each being completely affiliated. After the uni- 
versity employed a visitor, the high school development was much 
more rapid, and since the time of State inspection and visitation 
the high school development has gone on with marked rapidity. At 
the present time there are three hundred and two first class high 
schools, one hundred and sixteen second class and one hundred and 
eighty-eight third class, making a grand total of six hundred and six 
fully classified high schools in the State. When you consider that 
there were only two hundred and three in 1908, these figures are 
striking, for the reason that it indicates an increase of practically 
two hundred per cent in about ten years. For the year ending June, 
1919, there were enrolled in the high schools 60,699 pupils, and there ■ 
were graduated from these schools 8,699. The eighth grade gradu- 
ates this same year were 31,330, Avhich indicates that there is some- 
thing yet to be done in high schools to attract and hold all of the pu- 
pils who are graduating from the eighth grade. If such were the 
case the enrollment should be near 100,000 instead of 60,000. 

However, the most important development about the high school 
has been the democratized curriculum. The early academies and 
high schools were for such students only as expected to attend col- 
lege. At the present time, however, the modern high school curricu- 
lum in the State makes provision for practically all sorts of people 
— teacher-training classes for those who would begin teaching; voca- 
tional agriculture, vocational home economics, the trades, all the 
sciences, histories, languages and technical subjects. Indeed, a mod- 
ern high school curriculum is the equivalent of the ordinary college 
curriculum of thirty or forty years ago, except for the language de- 
mands made by those colleges. But in science, literature and the vo- 
cational aspects of education this new American invention in the 
State is immeasurably the superior of the old time college. 

Under higher education may be grouped the colleges, universities, 
and the normal schools. However, the last Legislature classified the 
normal schools as teachers' colleges. The earliest higher institution 
of learning to be organized in the State was the old St. Louis Acad- 
emy, which has become St. Louis University. The beginnings of this 
institution were made in 1818, and the school was taken over by the 
Jesuits in 1827. The institution finally became St. Louis University 



'.'-''.•' ' ... ;;.^.> '^- fifes* ",-.".vC . 



r v-u'/-""' 

From Stevens' "Missouri the Center State" 

■ ; j 1 & . 
■ -- •■? '-- ---■' ' 

' y ...;„• 

From Stevens' "Missouri the Center State" 


under charter by the State in 1S32. Provision was made for the 
State University in the first constitution in 1820. The Geyer Act of 
1839 made very definite provision for a State University to crown 
the public school system. The enabling act of Congress in 1S20 set 
aside two townships of land and some other lands as the resources 
from which to establish a seminary in the State. However, the Uni- 
versity itself was not established until 1839, when it was located, by 
a commission authorized by the Legislature, at Columbia. Central 
College was established in 1814, William Jewell, in 1S19, Westmin- 
ster, in 1853, AVashington University in 1851, Drury, in 1873, Park 
College in 1875, Tarkio College in 1883, and Missouri Valley, in 1888. 
These with Central Wesleyan of Warrenton and Missouri Wesleyan 
at Cameron constitute what is now known as the College Union, 
which was organized in 1893. The organization of the College Un- 
ion resulted in the standardization of higher education in the State. 
It also had a marked influence on high schools and all secondary edu- 
cation, for the reason that minimum standards of education were de- 
fined. Of course it is understood that these standards were all based 
primarily on the work of the Committee of the National Education 
Association with respect to secondary education. 

The normal schools of the State were organized in 1870. They 
were established under the authority of an act of the Legislature in 
March, 1870. At this time two schools were established, one at 
Kirksville and one at Warrensburg. In 1873 a third school was es- 
tablished at Cape Girardeau and in 1905 two additional schools were 
established — one at Springfield and one at Maryville. These schools 
are under the control and management of boards of regents, ap- 
pointed by the governor for a term of six years. During the exist- 
ence of these schools more than 115,000 students have been en- 
rolled in them and more than 23,000 licenses to teach have been is- 
sued by them. The University also from the beginning contributed 
to the preparation of teachers. The constitution of 1865 required 
the University to establish a chair of didactics, and at the present 
time the University has a well organized School of Education. 

Professional education is provided for by the University of Mis- 
souri, where there are colleges of Agriculture, Arts and Science, 
Law, Education, Engineering, Journalism and Commerce and pre- 
paratory work for Medicine. St. Louis University makes provision 
for professional and educational work in Theology, Law, Dentistry 
and Commerce. Washington University has well organized profes- 
sional departments in Law, Fine Arts, Medicine, Denistry, Engi- 
neering and Architecture. 


Mixsell and Allied Families 

By Winfield S. Downs, New Yoek City 

Mixsell Anns — Quarterly, first and fourth sable, a lion rampant or, the one in the 
first rampant to the sinister; second and third gules, a bend argent charged with a 
mouse courant sable. 

Crest— Between two wings, the dexter per fess argent and gules, the sinister sable 
and or, a lion issuant affronte of the fourth, crowned gold. 

p^5=7}HIS record of the Mixsell line begins with Philip Mixsell, 
born in Conestoga township, Lancaster county, Pennsyl- 
vania, November 23, 1731, died in Northampton county, 
Pennsylvania, May 13, 1817. He was a nephew of Ja- 
cob Mixsell, of Leacock township, Lancaster county, 
Pennsylvania, who came from Germany in the ship "Mortonhouse," 
which arrived at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, August 24, 1728. 

II. Philip (2) Mixsell, son of Philip (1) Mixsell, was bom in Wil- 
liams township, Northampton county, Pennsylvania, March 10, 1777, 
and died in Easton, July 26, 1870. 

Philip (2) Mixsell married Mary Wegener, born April 30, 1786, 
died February 26, 1868. (See Wagener). Children: 1. Matilda, 
born March 10, 1805, died June 14, 1881 ; married Charles limes, born 
October 7, 1802, died March 26, 1880 ; had two sons and one daugh- 
ter. 2. Daniel W., born January 4, 1807, died July 28, 1567. 3. 
Edmund B., born December 29, 1808, died July 22, 1858; married 
Amanda Howell; had four children. 4. Mary, married William 
Schott, Her daughter, Mary Schott, resides in Philadelphia. 5. 
Theodore, of whom further. 6. Howard, died in 1867. 7. Joseph J., 
born in 1814, died in 1862. 8. Philip, born May 12, 1819, died Jan- 
uary 9, 1871 ; married Sarah Diehl. Their daughter, Annie Maud, 
married Colonel Peter Penn-Gaskell Hall. 

777. Theodore Mixsell, son of Philip (2) and Mary (Wagener) 
Mixsell, was born September 11, 1811, died July 3, 1886. 

Theodore Mixsell married Matilda Davis, born in 1816, died Feb- 
ruary 6, 1897, and they were the parents of Dr. Joseph Mixsell, of 
whom further. 

IV. Dr. Joseph Mixsell, son of Theodore and Matilda (Davis) 
Mixsell, was born May 24, 1846, died July 3, 1888. He was a gradu- 
ate of the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, 
was long a prominent practitioner in Easton, and the incumbent of 



numerous official positions. For several terms he was president 
of the Northampton County Medical Society, served as coroner and 
physician to the Northampton County Prison, and was held in high 
esteem as citizen and physician. Late in life he moved to Phila- 
delphia, where his death occurred. 

Dr. Joseph Mixsell married Emily Davis, born May 31, 1850, and 
they were the parents of: 1. Leigh'ton, born October 1, 1871; mar- 
ried Helen Fenicle ; he is associated with the Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany, and resides in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; they are the parents 
of Mary Vvagener, Isabelle Ida, and Philip. 2. Austin Davis, of 
whom further. 3. Joseph, born October 7, 1888; married Grace 
Conklin ; they are the parents of one son, Austin Mixsell ; resides in 
Detroit, Michigan. 

V. Austin Davis Mixsell, son of Dr. Joseph and Emily (Davis) 
Mixsell, was born in Easton, Pennsylvania, October 20, 1873, and 
died in the city of Bethlehem, January 15, 1916. lie obtained his 
early education in the Easton schools, and after the family moved to 
Philadelphia he continued his studies in the Penn Charter School 
of the city, an institution founded by the Society of Friends. For a 
year after leaving school he was employed in the law office of Frank- 
lin B. McGowen, of Philadelphia, but in 1S92 he returned to his na- 
tive county, locating in Bethlehem, where he accepted a position in 
the freight office of the Lehigh Valley Piailroad, remaining there for 
six years. In 1898 he entered the service of the Bethlehem Steel 
Company as an attache of the general superintendent's office, and 
was assigned to duty in the sales department. He advanced rap- 
idly, and as representative of that department in New York City he 
completed so fine a record that in 1909 he was promoted to the high- 
est position in the sales department of the company, general sales 
agent. For six years he was head of the sales department, then, in 
1915, he was elected a member of the board of directors and vice- 
president of the company. When later the Dietrich and Harvey 
Machine Company, at Baltimore, was absorbed by the Bethlehem 
Steel Company, Mr. Mixsell was made president of that company, 
an office he filled until his death. In all the positions he was called 
upon to fill he displayed high ability, and in his private life honor 
and integrity distinguished him. He was a man of genial, friendly, 
and generous nature, and one whom to know was to love and esteem. 
He was one of the strong men of the Bethlehem Steel Company, and 
in warmest eulogy his associates of that company testify to his 

He was a member of the Union League and Manufacturers' clubs, 
of Philadelphia; the Railroad Engineers' and Lawyers' clubs, of 
New York City ; the Pomf ret Club, of Easton, and the Northampton 
County Country Club ; the Lehigh County Country Club, of Allen- 



town; the Historical Society of Pennsylvania; the American So- 
ciety for Testing Materials; the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers; the American Iron and Steel Institute (executive com- 
mittee) ; and the American Steel Founders' Society. 

At a meeting of the board of directors of the Bethlehem Steel 
Company, held January 17, 1917, the following resolutions were 

Whereas: Austin D. Mixsell, our associate director and officer and close personal 
friend, has departed this life and entered into rest, 

Resolved: That we, the Board of Directors of the Bethlehem Steel Company, here- 
by express our appreciation of the integrity and honor which he brought to the per- 
formance of his duties and the fidelity, the loyalty, the unfailing courtesy and the cheer- 
fulness with which he carried out the various functions devolving upon him; also our 
sense of irreparable personal loss in the removal of a friend whom we have for years 
known and trusted, association with whom has been a sincere pleasure and will ever re- 
main a treasured memory. 

Resolved: That we hereby express our deep and heartfelt sympathy with his 
bereaved family in their great loss and sorrow. 

Resolved: That as a mark of appreciation and respect all operations in the plants 
of this company and in the plants of the Dietrich-Harvey Machine Company, of which 
he was president, suspend during the funeral ceremonies. 

Resolved: That a copy of this resolution be spread on the minutes of the board of 
directors and that a copy be sent to the family. 

Austin Davis Mixsell married, February 15, 1899, Anna Eliza- 
beth Garis, daughter of William Edwin and Ellen Louisa (Micke) 
Garis, of Easton. (See Garis). Mrs. Mixsell is a member of the 
Pro-Cathedral Episcopal Church of the Nativity, and is prominent 
in civic and club circles. She retains the Mixsell Bucks county farm, 
and has her residence in Bethlehem. 

Mrs. Mixsell survives her husband, with their three children: 
1. Edwin Leighton, born February 22, 1902; a student in Choate 
School, Wallingford, Connecticut. 2. John Davis, born December 
21, 1903 ; attending school. 3. Eleanor Josephine, born June 7, 
190G; attending school. 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Mixsell are of French, Irish and 
German descent, lineal descendants of families who have played 
important part in the history of the Northampton region, among 
them Weygandt, Serfass, Eichman, Micke, Weaver, Grunmyer, Now- 
land, and Bechtel, in addition to those extensively mentioned. Their 
maternal great-grandmother, Susan (Eichman) Garis, was a great- 
granddaughter of Cornelius Weygandt, who came to America from 
the Palatinate, Germany, in 1736, and whose descendants are widely 
distributed throughout Eastern Pennsylvania, especially prominent 
in Northampton and Lehigh counties and the Philadelphia district. 
Ethan Allen Weaver, one of Northampton's leading historical writ- 
ers, descends from Cornelius Weygandt, as does Professor Cornelius 
Weygandt, of Philadelphia, with many others of position and dis- 
tinction in business and the professions. Cornelius Weygandt, the 
founder, married Maria Agenta Bechtel, daughter of the Rev. John 



Bechtel, a graduate of Heidelberg University, who came to America 
in 1726 as one of the "Fathers of the Reformed Church in Amer- 
ica," and who was the author of the early "Reformed Catechism," 
published by Benjamin Franklin. A son of Cornelius and Maria 
Agenta (Bechtel) Weygandt was born in Germantown in 1744, Cap- 
tain Jacob Weygandt. He was educated in Germantown, Penn- 
sylvania, then came with his family to a "plantation" near Bethle- 
hem, the present fashionable Fountain Hill section. He early 
espoused the Revolutionary cause and was a member of the North- 
ampton County Associators, one of the first patriot military organi- 
zations. He suffered capture at Fort Washington in November, 
1776, later regaining his liberty, and was one of the organizers of a 
company of militia, of which he was commissioned captain. Subse- 
quent to the Revolution he settled in Easton and became the founder 
of the "Easton German Patriot and Countryman," published from 
1805 to 1813. He served as one of the first burgesses of the borough 
of Easton, filled a seat in the Pennsylvania Legislature from 180S 
to 1811, and in 1809 was a presidential elector. He was a vestry- 
man of old St. John's Lutheran Church. He married, in 1767, Cath- 
erine, daughter of John Nowland, another Northampton pioneer, 
and their eldest son, Cornelius Nowland Weygandt, born in 1771, 
was associated with his father and brother, Jacob, Jr., the latter 
the founder of the Easton "Argus," the earliest of Easton 's English 
newspapers, first issued February 13, 1S27. Cornelius Nowland 
Weygandt also served as secretary of the meeting of prominent 
citizens called to consider plans for the founding of Lafayette Col- 
lege. He married Susan Grunmyer, and they were the parents of 
two sons and three daughters. Helen, the youngest, married Wil- 
liam Eichman, and they were the parents of Susan Eichman, who 
became the wife of Samuel Garis. 

(The Butz Line). 

Arms — Argent, an eagle displayed azure. 
Crest— A lion rampant proper. 

I. Traditional indications, as well as authentic sources, give 
Jacob Butz, the first of the family here recorded, descent from 
Otto Butz, A D. 473, and the "Vienna Booh of Heraldry" calls the 
original ancestor "Butrus," who was taken to Germany as a pris- 
oner of war in A. D. 160. Jacob Butz, of the first generation of this 
chronicle, and father of the American ancestor, was the parent of 
the following children : Jacob, of whom further ; Henry, Christian, 
Peter, George, Abraham, Catharine, Charlotte, Elizabeth, Rachel, 
Mary, Michael. 

II. Jacob (2) Butz, son of Jacob (1) Butz, left his German home 
and came to America prior to the emigration of 1727. lie settled 
in Eastern Pennsylvania, and was the father of Michael, of whom 
further, and perhaps others. 



///. Michael Bute, son of Jacob (2) Butz, was born in Springfield 
township, Backs county, Pennsylvania, and died in Forks township, 
in July, 1779. About the year 1763 Michael Butz moved to Forks 
township, near Easton, where he settled on a farm he had previouslv 
purchased from Paul Abel (May 10, 1763). On October 13, 1763, 
he joined Captain Jacob Arndt's colonial companv. ("Condit's 
History of Easton," p. 197; "Fritts' History of Northampton, 
1877," p. 53). The original roll of this company was (1902) in the 
possession of B. M. Youells. He took the oath of allegiance on De- 
cember 15, 1777 (No. 188). (Pennsylvania Historical Societv Mss. 
Records, 1767-78, p. 251). 

Michael Butz married Elizabeth Weaver, born July 11, 1730, died 
September 6, 1795. They were the parents of: 1. Henry, born 
October 8, 1753, died March 17, 1813; married, February 29, 1777, 
Anne Eve Huffschmidt, and lived in Oxford township, Warren 
county, New Jersey. 2. Christian, of whom further. 3. Adam, born 
in 1760, died October 29, 1810 ; settled in Hamilton, Monroe county, 
Pennsylvania. 4. Mary, born in 1761, died January 20, 1833. 5. 
Peter, born in 1761, of Monroe county, Pennsylvania. 6. George, 
of Butztown, Pennsylvania, born in 1764, married Catharine Dreis- 
bach, born in 1769, died September 18, 1849, daughter of 
Simon Drcisbach, and had eight children. 7. Cecilia, born April 17, 
1767. 8. Abraham, born December 9, 1768. 9. Michael, born in 
1769, died February 28, 1S26; married Catharine, daughter of Chris- 
topher and Christina Keller, of Hamilton, Monroe county, Pennsyl- 
vania, and had children. 10. Jacob, of Knowlton township, Sussex 
county, New Jersey. 11. Charlotta, married Conrad Shearer. 12. 
Elizabeth, married Philip Hickenboden. 13. Catharine, married 
John Sipperlin. 14. Margaret. 

IV. Christian Butz, son of Michael and Elizabeth (Weaver) Butz, 
was born November 38, 1756, and died October 10, 1821. He was a 
member of Captain Buss' (First) Company, Forks township, Fifth 
Battalion, Northampton County Militia, ordered to march July 30, 
1778 (Second Pennsylvania Archives XIV, p. 577). He took the 
oath of allegiance, December 30, 1777 (No. 195). (Pennsylvania 
Historical Society Mss. Records 1767-1778, p. 251). In 1796 he was 
assessor for Forks, in 1801 county commissioner, and from 1811 
to 1813 county treasurer. The old Butz mill, built by Colonel Kach- 
lein in 1762, was purchased by Christian Butz from Andrew Kach- 
lein. In the assessor's return from Easton in 1806, the following 
item occurs: ''Christian Butz, miller, at 200, 2014 acres land, 1 lot, 
2 mills, horses, mares, geldings, cattle." 

Christian Butz married Mary Wagener (see Wagener), born 
January 18, 1760, died June 18, 1833. Children: 1. Elizabeth, 
baptized January 21, 1782, died in 1842; married Philip Oden- 



welder. 2. Susanna, born June 8, 1783, died December 20, 1853; 
married, March 18, 1804, Jacob Heller, and had eight children. 3. 
Jacob, born April 16, 1786, died September 5, 1854. 4. David, of 
whom further. 5. Mary, born June 7, 1793, died August 21, 1878; 
married Peter Keiper. 6. Michael, born January 1, 1796, died No- 
vember 15, 1889; married, October 22, 1822, Elizabeth Shimer, and 
had eight children. 7. Daniel W., born in 1802, died April 19, 1867; 
married Elvira Barnet, and had four children. 

V. David Butz, son of Christian and Mary (Wagener) Butz, was 
born in 1789, and died February 18, 1827. David Butz married 
Mary Herster (see Herster), born in 1790, died March 24, 1868. 
Their children were : 1. Ebeneza, of whom further. 2. John II., 
born June 4, 1811, died April 21, 1879. 3. Mary, bom December 1, 
1812, married Herman S. Heckman. 4. Christian, born October 13, 
1814, died September 20, 1859; married and had issue. -5. Su- 
san, born November 16, 1816, died April 17, 1S91 ; married James 
E. Lines, of Easton, Pennsylvania. 6. Daniel H., born in 1818, died 
December 30, 1858, unmarried. 7. Joseph. 8. William. 9. Eliza- 

VI. Ebeneza Butz, daughter of David and Mary (Herster) Butz, 
was born January 6, 1810, and died June 16, 1892. She married, 
November 21, 1828, William J. Harmony, born April 7, 1807, died 
October 20, 1891, and had children: 1. Mary B., of whom further. 
2. David. 3. Edward. 4. Joseph. 

VII. Mary B. Harmony, daughter of Win. J. and Ebeneza (Butz) 
Harmony, born December 31, 1829, died January 12, 1902 ; married 
William L. Davis, born August 6, 1826, died October 3, 1870, and 
they had children: 1. Emily, born May 31, 1850; married Dr. Jo- 
seph Mixsell. (See Mixsell). 2. Edward. 3. Adele. 4. John. 5. 

(The Garis Line). 

Arms — Or, three chevronels gules. 
Crest — A leopard rampant or. 

7. The Garis family for a century were noted for their skill as 
cabinet makers, Valentine Garis having founded a store and factory 
in Easton, Pennsylvania, in 1785, a business continued by his son, 
Samuel, and grandson, William Edwin, until 1892. 

II. Samuel Garis, son of Valentine Garis, was born in Williams 
township, Northampton county, Pennsylvania, and was an excep- 
tionally fine wood-carver, a calling he followed until he entered the 
general furniture trade. He was a member of the Lutheran church, 
and in the later years of his life made his home in Philadelphia. 

Samuel Garis married Susan Eichman, daughter of William Eich- 



man, a leading merchant and boat-owner of Easton in an early day. 
Issue : 1 . William Edwin, of whom further. 2. Irvin, deceased. 
3. Cornelius, married Minnie Fleming, and lives in Easton, Penn- 
sylvania; they are the parents of: Charles, Dean of Union Uni- 
versity; Herbert, a resident of Easton; Harry, living in Washing- 
ton, D. C. Two children, Maggie and Fannie, died in infancy, and 
a third, Samuel, died when a young man. 4. Charles, a resident of 
Phillipsburg, New Jersey; married and has three children: Clar- 
ence, Maud, and William. 5. David, married Catherine Sigman. 
6. Frank, a physician of Germantown, Pennsylvania ; married Es- 
ther Shimer, and has one daughter, Dorothy. 7. George, deceased. 
8. Mary, married Edwin Hess, and lives at Camden, New Jersey; 
they have children : Helen, May, Samuel, Fred, Sue, George, Wil- 
liam and Henry. 9. Elizabeth, married Dr. Eobert Somers, and 
lives in Philadelphia ; they have children : Charles and Garis. 10. 
Matilda, lives in Philadelphia. 11. Helen, deceased. 

277. William Edwin Garis, son of Samuel and Susan (Eichman) 
Garis, was born in South Easton, September 26, 1849, and as a 
youth attended the public schools and Eastman's Business College 
of Poughkeepsie, New York, entering his father's establishment af- 
ter the completion of his studies and learning furniture designing 
and manufacture. In an emergency, caused by the illness of one of 
the traveling salesmen of the house, he was sent to cover the terri- 
tory while still in his teens. His first order, unusually large, was 
given contingent upon his ability to duplicate an elaborate suite of 
furniture for his customer, a condition his trained skill as a designer 
enabled him to meet with complete satisfaction. This was the be- 
ginning of his long and successful experience as a furniture sales- 
man, although he subsequently acquired the ownership and assumed 
the management of the business, which enjoyed a substantial pros- 
perity until 1892, when a nervous breakdown compelled him to re- 
tire from business responsibilities. He made his home on a farm 
in Forks township after his retirement, following agriculture along 
scientific lines, later managing Austin D. Mixsell's Bucks county 
farm. In 1915 he became a member of the firm of Garis & Shimer, 
and since that time has engaged in real estate dealings in Bethle- 
hem, their firm a highly rated and well known organization in the 
city. Mr. Garis is a member of the Bethlehem Real Estate Board, 
the Bethlehem Chamber of Commerce, and is a communicant of 
Grace Lutheran Church. 

Mr. Garis married, June 26, 1872, Ellen Louisa Micke, daughter of 
Reuben P. and Margaret (Serfass) Micke, her father for many years 
a political leader of Northampton county, and an office holder in 
many important capacities in City and State. Ellen Louisa (Micke) 
Garis died April 1, 1912. She was a woman whose life was rich 



in good works in church and charity. She was active in the wom- 
en's dubs and social service organizations of Easton, and her mem- 
ory is affectionately cherished in her wide circle of friends. Wil- 
liam Edwin and Ellen Louisa (Micke) Garis were the parents of: 

1. Anna Elizabeth, married Austin Davis Mixsell (see Mixsell). 

2. Eosa Clementina, married Walter Cornelius Reynolds, and lives 
in Easton, Pennsylvania; they are the parents of "Margaret Garis", 
Douglas, Walter, Cornelius, Jr., Helen, and Eloise Dorothy. 3. 
Margaret Ella, married Charles Hoover, deceased, a former resident 
of Philadelphia ; Mrs. Hoover now lives with Mrs. Mixsell in Beth- 
lehem. 4. Florence Saeger, married Harry Miller, and lives in Eliz- 
abeth, New Jersey. 

(The Wagener Line). 

I. Casper Wagener, of Ober-Langneundorf, was in 1719 cited sev- 
eral time's to appear in the instruction given by the Jesuits. In 
1727 he was married by the priest to Anna — , and promised to bring 
up his children in the Catholic faith. He passed through the trials 
of the Jesuit mission, probably had his children, Christopher and 
Anna Rosina, baptized into the Catholic faith, and fled to Goerlitz 
in the winter or spring of 1736, and later to Berthelsdorf. Before 
the migration of 1737 he was killed, the daughter Anna Rosina died, 
and David, of whom further, w T as born. The widow-mother with her 
two sons, Christopher and David, fled to America, arriving at Phil- 
adelphia, Pensylvania, in the ship "St. Andrew Galley," John 
Stedman, master, September 26, 1737. The Wagener families men- 
tioned in connection with the Jesuit mission lived in Harpersdorf 
and Langneundorf, and were firm, resolute and fearless Schwenk- 
felders. Their given names were Casper, Friedrich, Heinrich, Da- 
vid, Regina, Melchior, and George (Prof. H. W. Kriebel). Anna 
AVagener and her two sons settled in Worcester township, Montgom- 
ery county, Pennsylvania. 


Concerning the reestablishment of the so-called Schwenckfeldians in Silesia and oth- 
er Provinces of his Royal Majesty; De Dato Selowitz, the 8th March 1742. 

We, Frederick, by the Grace of God, King of Prussia, Margrave of Brandenberg, 
Arch-Chamberlain and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, &c, &c. 

Be it known to all to whom these presents may come, Whereas we do hold nothing 
to be more contrary to Nature, Reason, and the Principles of the Christian Religion, as 
the forcing of the subjects' consciences and to persecute them about any erroneous doc- 
trines which do not concern the fundamental principles of the Christian Religion ; so we 
have most graciously resolved that the so-called Schwenckfeldians who were exiled 
through an imprudent zeal for Religion, to the irreparable damage of commerce and 
the country, be recalled into our Sovereign Duchy of Nether Silesia. We have, there- 
fore, thought fit by these presents to assure all those who profess the said doctrine, up- 
on our Royal word, that they shall and may safely return not only into our Sovereign 
Duchy of the Nether-Silesia but also into all our provinces, peaceably to live and trade 
there ; since, we do not only receive them into our special protection, but also will give 
them all necessary supplies for the promotion of their commerce. And all those who 



several years ago, were deprived of their habitations and estates in our Country of 
Silesia in case those estates are not paid for by the new possessors, shall be reinstated 
without any compensation. Such as will settle in our villages shall have farms assigned 
them, and care shall be taken to provide them employment — and those who choose to 
live in towns, shall besides several ordinary Free years, have places assigned them gratis, 
for the building of their houses, for which purpose they need only apply to our Military 
and (Domainen) Chambers. 

We do therefore command our superior Colleges of Justice and Finance as also all 
mediate Princes, Lords, Magistrates, &c, carefully to observe the same. In witness 
whereof we have signed this present Edict with our own hand, and caused our Royal 
Seal to be affixed. 

Done at Selowitz, March 8th, 17+2. 

Frederick of Coccey, 
Count of Munchan. (Seal.) 

The above is from a copy of Melchoir Wagoner's translation, the 
original transcript having been at one time in the possession of 
Daniel Wagoner, grandson of Casper Wagener. The edict was is- 
sued several years after the emigration of the Schwenkfelders, but 
notwithstanding the promises of aid and protection not one of the 
emigres returned. It is a noteworthy fact that when the Amster- 
dam house, which generously furnished the passage of these emigres, 
became financially embarrassed in 1790, the Schwenkfeldians in 
Pennsylvania, in remembrance of past kindness, advanced to the 
house for its relief the sum of seven hundred pounds. 

Casper Wagener and his wife, Anna, born in 1702, died January 
23, 1790, had children : 1. Christopher, born November 15, 1727 ; 
married, November 26, 1754, Susanna, daughter of David Huebner. 
2. Anna Rosina. 3. David, of whom further. 

II. Judge David Wagener, son of Casper and Anna Wagener, was 
born May 21, 1736, died at Easton, Pennsylvania, May 9, 1796. He 
came to Easton in 1776, and nine years later made his first pur- 
chase of land, sixty-five acres, for two hundred and sixty pounds, six 
shillings. This plot was added to from time to time, until at his 
death he was one of the large landholders of the town. In the year 
1791, he was appointed associate justice of the Northampton Courts, 
which office he continued to hold until his death in 1796. His will, 
dated February 18, 1796, and probated June 7, 1796, is recorded in 
Will Book 3, page 47. References to David Wagener in the Mss. 
Records of the Historical Societv of Pennsvlvania are Vol. 1767-7S, 
page 41; Vol. 1778-97, pp. 61, 63", 147, 219; Vol. 1797-51, pp. 27, 169. 

Judge David Wagener married Susanna Umsted, born February 
2, 1734, died April 22, 1819. Children : 1. Mary, born January 18, 
1760, died in Easton, June 18, 1833; married Christian Butz (see 
Butz). 2. Elizabeth, born in 1760, died August 18, 1830; married 
Jacob Mixsell, and had five children. 3. Deborah, born in 1764, died 
October 11, 1826; married Adam Deshler, and had five children. 4. 
Daniel, of whom further. 5. David, born in November, 1770, died 
March 19, 1854; married Rosanna Beidleman. 6. John. 7. Abra- 



///. Daniel Wagener, son of Judge David and Susanna (Umsted) 
Wagener, was born in 1766, died May 24, 1842. Daniel Wagener 
was for thirty-nine years judge of the Northampton County Courts 

Daniel Wagener married, April 13, 1785, Eve Opp, born April 1, 
1768, died April 6, 1833. Children : 1. Mary, born April 30, 1786, 
married Philip Mixsell (see Mixsell). 2. Susanna, born May 11, 
1788, died June 18, 1S59; married Joseph Burke, and had five chil- 
dren. 3. Jacob, born December 10, 1790, died December 14, 1859; 
married (first) Sabina Michler, and had three children. 4. David 
D., born October 11, 1792, died October 1, 1860; married Mary 
Knauss; David D. Wagener was a member of Assembly, 1828-31, 
member of Congress, 1832-40, captain of the Easton Union Guards, 
1816-29, and president of the Easton National Bank, 1852-60. 5. 
John 0., born May 19, 1800, died June 9, 1829; was a physician; 
married a Miss Adams. 

(The Herster Line). 

7. Andrew Herster was born in the year 1726. At the age of 
twenty-three he embarked at Rotterdam on the ship "Speedwell," 
captain, James Craig, and qualified at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
September 25, 1749. (2d Pa. Arch. XVII, p. 294). He settled at 
Long or Falkner Swamp, near Pottstown. In 1766, ten years after 
his marriage, he removed to Easton with his family. In the records 
of the Augustus (Trappe) Lutheran Church, the oldest church of 
that denomination in Pennsylvania, in Providence township, Mont- 
gomery county, Pennsylvania, occurs the following: "Andreas 
Herster married 16 Dec. 1756, at John Koplin's house, Anna Maria, 
daughter of Peter Marstaller." In 1760 his name appears on Pas- 
tor Muhlenberg's subscription list for one pound, ten shillings, 
yearly from 27 Nov. 1760. 

On July 9, 1776, Andrew Herster was appointed second sergeant 
in Captain John Arndt's First Battalion of Associators, a part of 
the Flying Camp of ten thousand men. ( 2d Pennsylvania Archives, 
XIV, p. 558, and Eosengarten's "The German Soldier," p. 154). It 
appears that he took the place of his son John, who had previously 
enlisted. In the company's first engagement at the battle of Long 
Island, August 27, 1776, he was taken prisoner and confined in the 
British prison ship "Jersey" (2d Pa. Arch. XIV, p. 561), where 
he died December 25, 1776. His name appears on the monument in 
Trinity Churchyard, which was erected to the memory of those 
who died on the prison ship. 

The following is taken from the Register of St. John's Church, 
Easton : 

1830, Maria CHerster) of the family of Peter Marstellar, born August 26, 1736, 
baptized and confirmed in the Lutheran Church, from which time a communicant at our 
Table. She entered into matrimony about 72 years ago with Andrew Herster. They 

379 ' 


were blest with 3 children, 2 sons and a daughter, the latter which is sometime since 
dead. Her infirmities, caused by extreme old age, increased until it pleased God to re- 
move her from us, viz: about 8 o'clock in the evening of the 14th September, age 94 
yrs. 22 da. It is remarkable circumstance, worthy the notice of this congregation, that 
she lived to see 18 grandchildren, 92 great-grandchildren and 9 great-great-grandchil- 

Andrew Herster married, December 16, 1756, Anna Maria Mars- 
tellar, born August 23, 1736, died September 25, 1830. They were 
the parents of : 1. John, of whom further. 2. Daniel, born in April, 
1763, died August 2, 1846 ; married Anna C. Simon, and had eight 
children. 3. Mary, married William Thompson, and had one son 
and one daughter. 

II. John Herster, son of Andrew and Anna Maria (Marstellar) 
Herster, was born at Long Swamp, Pennsylvania, October 16, 1758, 
died at Easton, February 25, 1856. The old stone mill at the north 
end of the Third street Bushkill bridge was the first mill built by 
John Herster in the year 1789. "To his energy and enterprise the 
citizens were indebted for the erection of several of the flouring 
mills." The old mill at Williams's, North Thirteenth street, the 
distillery half mile west, and the distillery above Kepler's, were 
built by John Herster. He took the oath of allegiance (no. 324), 
May 13, 1778. In 1786 he was assistant assessor for Easton ; 1787- 
89 one of the assistant freeholders of Easton. From 1795 to 1801 
he was treasurer of the county, and during this period was also one 
of the burgesses of Easton. He was one of the incorporators of the 
Easton and Wilkes-Barrc Turnpike Company, 1803; of the Lehigh 
Chain Bridge, 1811; of the Easton Water Company, 1817; and of 
the Easton Delaware Bridge Company. John Herster was appoint- 
ed ensign in the Second Battalion of Northampton Militia, vide let- 
ter of Company Lieutenant Robert Lewers, to Timothy Matlack, 
secretary to Supreme Executive Council, May 1, 1782. "John 
Herster, Ensign, in the room of Abraham Berlin appointed Lieu- 
tenant. " 

John Herster married Margaret Shnyder, born in 1762, died Jan- 
uary 11, 1811. Children: 1. Catharine, born in 1784, died March 
31, 1825 ; married George Barnet, and had six children. 2. Eliza- 
beth, born November 25, 1786, died May 12, 1861 ; married Henry 
Eyerman, and had two sons and one daughter. 3. George, born Au- 
gust 12, 1788, died May 6, 1819 ; married Susanna Mixsell, and had 
four children. 4. Mary, born in 1790, married David Butz (see 
Butz). 5. Joseph, born May 4, 1793, died April 25, 1870; married 
Mary Wagener, and had five children. 6. John J., born August 17, 
1795, died May 22, 1819. 



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; - 



In the passing of John "Woolf Jordan, LL.D., whose death occurred 
at his home in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on June 12th, 1921, is 
witnessed the ending of a long and highly useful life. Of none can it 
be more truthfully said that "his works do follow him," than of one 
whose life had been so occupied as was that of Dr. Jordan. For fully 
one-half of his upwards of fourscore years he was the librarian of 
the famous old Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and custodian of 
its invaluable archives, and for a yet longer period his pen had been 
busy in the compilation of ancient records concerning the Colonial 
American period, to the preservation of much that without his intel- 
ligent labors would have utterly perished from the earth. Indeed, 
as a genealogist, historian and antiquarian he was without a peer 
in the entire country. He busied himself with only that which was 
of worth; for the trifling and ephemeral he had neither taste nor 
patience. His every thought and his every effort was of real worth 
and for permanence. 

Dr. Jordan came to his life task with an enthusiasm born out of 
reverence for an ancestry which had borne a full part in the making 
of his State and Nation. His first American ancestor, Frederick 
Jordan, of French extraction, was born in County Kent, England, 
and came to America in his young manhood. He first located in 
Pennsylvania, thence removing to Hunterdon county, New Jersey. 
He bore an honorable part in the Revolutionary War, serving in the 
Second Regiment of the New Jersey Continental Line, and partici- 
pating in the campaign which culminated in the surrender of the 
British army at Yorktown. He married Catherine Eckel, of Bucks 
county, Pennsylvania. 

John Jordan, son of Frederick and Catherine (Eckel) Jordan, 
was born in Hunterdon county, New Jersey. In his youth he en- 
tered the counting house of his uncle, Godfrey Haga, the eminent 
Philadelphia merchant and philanthropist, and to whose business 



he eventually succeeded. He married Elizabeth Henry, daughter 
of Hon. William Henry. 

Francis Jordan, son of John and Elizabeth (Henry) Jordan, was 
born in Philadelphia, in which city he became prominent in mercan- 
tile life and in association with various large financial institutions. 
He married Emily Woolf, daughter of John Lewis and Margaret 
(Ewing) Woolf. Her father was a prominent citizen of Philadel- 
phia, where he held various public positions, and was a lieutenant- 
colonel of militia during the second war with England. Her grand- 
father, Lewis Woolf, came from Hanover, Germany, and settled at 
Pottsgrove, then in Philadelphia and now in Montgomery county, 
Pennsylvania. During the K evolutionary War he performed ser- 
vice in the Continental army in the Troop Marcausse, commanded by 
Captain Bartholomew Von Heer, and accoutred as light dragoons. 
Dr. John Woolf Jordan, son of Francis and Emily (Woolf) Jor- 
dan, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, September 14, 1840. 
He was educated in private schools in his native city, and Nazareth 
Hall, graduating from the last named institution in 1S5G, in his six- 
teenth year. He was twenty-three when during the Civil War the 
State was invaded by the Confederate army under General Eobert 
E. Lee, and he was among those who responded to the call of the 
Governor to take service in the emergency forces to aid in repelling 
the enemy. During that period he served with Starr's battery, at- 
tached to the Thirty-second Regiment of Pennsylvania Militia. 

Called to the place of librarian of the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania, Dr. Jordan at once proved his entire fitness for that em- 
inently important position, which he adorned for the remainder of 
his life. So complete was his knowledge of all the immense mass of 
material under his charge, that his memory was a veritable index 
rerum ever at the instant command of investigators. Nor did this 
work exhaust his capabilities. In 1887 he entered upon the edi- 
torial conduct of "The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biog- 
raphy," to which he made many valuable original contributions. As 
editor he placed in form many valuable papers relating to Colonial 
and Revolutionary history, among them being the "Diary of Jacob 
Hiltzheimer of Philadelphia, 1765-1798;" "Orderly Book of the 
Pennsylvania Regiment of Foot, 1777;" "Orderly Book of Fourth 
Pennsylvania Battalion, Colonel Anthony Wayne, 1776;" "Or- 
derly Book of the Second Pennsylvania Line, Colonel Henry Bicker, 



,-:>. ±i^. 

■ ,- ■ '" : 

" \ - - ' '■ -' - -■ - - - . . ~-M 

.:.'>«-:-;•;_;■■; ,-'_•■" „".i, '■•,:•■..:,•..•"<"-■.■: • .-■■■ v... .- ■■■•■ ■-., /.v ■■- ..'.-■ ■'^*23g 

Erected 1740; \va:> the Whitefield House, I7-|S; torn down 1871 





___ „..,...;._„ ,.. _ _,— - -.^ 

Built in 16S3 


1778;" "Orderly Book of General J. P. G. Muhlenberg, 1777;" 
"Orderly Book of the Seventeenth British Foot, Major Robert Clay- 
ton, 1778;" "John Martin Mack's Narrative of a Visit to Onon- 
daga in 1752 ;" "Bishop J. C. F. Cammerhoff 's Journal of a Journey 
to Shamokin, 1748;" "Annals of Wechquetauk Indian Mission, 
1760-1763;" "Annals of Wyalusing Indian Mission." 

Dr. Jordan's published volumes include the following: "A Red 
Rose from the Olden Time, 1752-1772 ;" "Friedenstahl and its Stock- 
aded Mill;" "Narrative of John Heckwelder's Journey to the 
Wabash in 1792;" "John Heckwelder's Notes of Travel to the 
Ohio, 1797;" "Bishop A. G. Spangenberg's Journey to Onondaga 
in 1747;" "Military Hospitals at Bethlehem and Lititz during the 
Revolution;" "Revolutionary History of Bethlehem, 1775-1783;" 
"Battle of Germantown," and "Franklin as a Genealogist." For 
many years until his death he was associated with the Lewis His- 
torical Publishing Company, and with The American Historical 
Society, Incorporated, as editor and contributor, and their very 
many volumes testify to his industry and ability. Among them are 
"Colonial Families of Philadelphia," "Colonial and Revolutionary 
Families of Pennsylvania," "Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biog- 
raphy," and "Encyclopedia of American Biography." The three 
last named volumes contain a vast amount of genealogical material 
which is the basis of the history of thousands of families, not alone 
in Pennsylvania, but throughout the entire country. 

Dr. Jordan was the first president of the Pennsylvania Federation 
of Historical Societies, vice-president of the Colonial Society of 
Pennsylvania, registrar of the Pennsylvania Society Sons of the 
Revolution, vice-president of the Swedish Colonial Society, honor- 
ary member of the Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati, and was 
connected with many learned societies. He was'also a commissioner 
of Valley Forge Park, and held a similar connection with the Com- 
mission for the Preservation of the Public Records of Pennsyl- 
vania. Lafayette College in 1902 conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws. 

A portrait of Dr. Jordan appears as the frontispiece of this num- 
ber of "Americana," and on preceding pages are given liberal ex- 
tracts from two of his notable papers, on Andrew Hamilton and the 
Bradford Family. 

Dr. Jordan married Anne Page, daughter of Alfred and Rebecca 



Page, of Philadelphia, and to them were born two sons and a 


From the S. M. Christie Press of New Brunswick, New Jersey, 
comes a volume of more than two hundred pages, published by that 
city, under the title, ''New Brunswick in the World War," and dedi- 
cated to its men and women who upheld its honor in that tremendous 
struggle. It was compiled and edited by Mr. John P. Wall, a most 
well equipped local and State historian, who states in his preface, 
"These pages were compiled to perpetuate the valor and courage of 
the men and women of New Brunswick who took part in the greatest 
conflict that the world has ever known, and to express our debt of 
gratitude to the nearly eighteen hundred men and women of this 
city who donned the uniform of the United States and gathered un- 
der the colors to offer their lives that the principles so dear to 
them should not perish. ' ' 

There is no phase of the activities of either the soldiers or of the 
home abiders, from beginning to end of the great drama, but is pre- 
sented in graphic narrative, and the abundant illustrations empha- 
size the record in its every aspect, pathetic and humorous. The 
work will have ever increasing value with the passing years. 


January, 1921— December, 1921. 

Alaska, The Land of Possibilities 144 

Allerton Family . . . v 91 

American Magazines, Past and Present 325 

American Press, The Early 335 

Bangs, Charles H., The Mayflower Compact and Samuel Fuller, 

The Pilgrims' Doctor 294 

Bassett, Norman L., History of the Blaine Mansion 288 

Blaine Mansion, History of 288 

Black, Henry T., Steamboats of Lake Chautauqua 135 

Campbell, Amelia Day, Alaska, The Land of Possibilities 144 

Campbell, Amelia Day, Nantucket, Yesterday, Today and To- 
morrow 305 

Chautauqua Lake, Steamboats of 135 

Culver, Lucius L., A Biography 273 

Did Gen. Gofl'e Defend Hadley ? 155 

Downs, Johns P., A Family of Heroes 69 

Downs, Winfield S., Lucius S. Culver, A Biography 273 

Downs, Winfield S., Henry Glover, A Biography 182 

Downs, Winfield S., Mixsell and Allied Families 370 

Eaton, Arthur W. H., The Halifax Explosion 38 

Editorials 100, 201, 301, 381 

Educational Institutions, Other 201 

Family of Heroes, A 69 

Finley, E. C, Heraldry 54 

Glover, Henry, A Biography 182 

Halifax Explosion, The 38 

Hamilton, Alexander, As a Promoter 118 

Hedley, Fenwick Y., Robert Thompson Van Horn, A Biography. 277 

Hedley, Fenwick Y., The Missouri Centennial 351 



Heraldry 54 

Hodgdon, Daniel Russell, Valparaiso University 105 

In Memoriam, John Woolf Jordan 381 

Ingraham, Charles A., American Magazines, Past and Present. . 325 

Ingraham, Charles A., Transcendentalism 1G9 

Jordan, John Woolf, The Early American Press 335 

Jordan, John Woolf, In Memoriam 381 

Literary Notes 101, 203, 301, 381 

McMillan, Rev. Duncan J., The Vision of an American Seer. ... 1 

Mayflower Compact; and Samuel Fuller, the Pilgrims' Doctor.. 29-4 

Missouri Centennial, The 351 

Mixsell and Allied Families 370 

Nantucket, Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow 305 

Of Peculiar Interest (Editorial) 100 

Ohio University, The 253 

Peterson, F. R., Plumb and Allied Families 75 

Pickersgill, H. E., The Raritan Valley of New Jersey 209 

Plumb and Allied Families 75 

Presidential Election 192 

Raritan Valley of New Jersey, The 209 

Shriner, Charles A., Alexander Hamilton, As a Promoter 118 

Stuart, William, White Servitude in New York and New Jersey. 19 

Super, Charles W., The Ohio University 253 

Transcendentalism 169 

Truman, Nathan E., Did Gen. Goffe Defend Hadley? 155 

Valparaiso University 105 

Van Horn, Robert Thompson, A Biography 277 

Vision of an American Seer 1 

Wall, John P., The Raritan Valley of New Jersey 209 

White Servitude in New York and New Jersey 19 


Facing Page 

Allerton, Coat of Arms 91 

Allerton, Samuel H., Steel Engraving 95 

Andrews, Coat of Arms 85 

Blackburn College, Carlinville, Illinois 13 

Blackburn Gideon, Portrait 1 

Bradford Arms 191 

BrierclifFe, Residence of Mrs. D. W. Plumb, Shelton, Conn 78 

Brown, Coat of Arms 283 

Brown, Frank R. Steel Engraving 285 

Brown, John, Steel Engraving Between pages 282-283 

Brown, Maud Stoddard, Steel Engraving. .. .Between pages 282-283 

Brown, Robert S., Steel Engraving 284 

Chautauqua Lake, from an old map 135 

Chautauqua Lake, On the Outlet 135 

Chautauqua's Largest Steamer . 142 

City Hospital, Perth Amboy, New Jersey 249 

Comegys, Ann Bell Dunlap, Steel Engraving 275 

Cortlandt Parker Homestead at Broad and Fulton Streets, New- 
ark, New Jersey 19 

Culver, Coat of Arms 273 

Culver Homes, Steel Engraving 274 

Culver, Lucius L., Steel Engraving Between pages 272-273 

Culver, Mary, Steel Engraving Between pages 272-273 

dishing Monument, Fredonia, New York G9 

Dey House, Washington Headquarters 118 

Dormitory, Blackburn College 15 

Duke of York and Albany, Portrait -. 209 

Emigrants En Route to the Western Country 25G 

Engineering Building, Valparaiso University Ill 

Ewing Hall, Ohio University 253 

First City Hall, Paterson, New Jersey 124 



Garis, Ellen L. Micke, Steel Engraving Between pages 376-377 

Garis, William Edwin, Steel Engraving Between pages 37G-377 

Gilbert Stuart's Portrait of Washington Frontispiece No. 3 

Glover, Coat of Arms 182 

Glover, Henry, Steel Engraving 188 

Glover, Susan Dana Flintham, Steel Engraving 189 

Glover, Jr., Henry, Steel Engraving 190 

Gregory's Graveyard, Perth Amboy, New Jersey 251 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, from an old engraving Frontispiece No. 1 

Hawley, Coat of Arms 89 

Headquarters of Gen. Washington at the Battle of Brandy wine. . 381 
Home of Gideon Blackburn, at time of his death, Carlinville, Illi- 
nois 15 

Jordan, John W., Steel Engraving Frontispiece No. 4 

Medical Building, Valparaiso University 115 

Mixsell, Ann Elizabeth Garis, Steel Engraving 372 

Mixsell, Austin Davis, Steel Engraving 371 

Mixsell, Emily Davis, Steel Engraving Between pages 370-371 

Mixsell, Joseph, Steel Engraving .Between pages 370-371 

Morgan, Coat of Arms 86 

Music Hall, Valparaiso University 115 

Nichols, Coat of Arms 87 

Ohio University in 1848 253 

Old College Building, Valparaiso University 105 

Olden Time School 259 

Palace Car Used as a Dormitory 17 

Pioneer Steamboat on Lake Chautauqua 137 

Plumb Coat of Arms 75 

Plumb, D. W., Steel Engraving 76 

Plumb, Louise Wakelee, Steel Engraving 82 

Plumb Memorial Library, Shelton, Conn., Steel Engraving 77 

Public Library, New Brunswick, New Jersey 237 

Recognition Day, at right Frances E. Willard, Memorial Win- 
dow, Chautauqua Institute Frontispiece No. 2 

Science Hall, Valparaiso University Ill 

Sir Edmund Andros, Portrait 220 

Smith Street, Perth Amboy, New Jersey 245 

Stoddard, Coat of Arms 286 

INDEX vii 

The Blind Girl's Home, St. Louis, Missouri 276 

The Escutcheon or Shield 54 

The Favorite Boat of Its Day 142 

The Heart of Perth Amboy, New Jersey 245 

The Old Stage Coach 259 

Thorn's Statue at Colt Hill, Paterson, New Jersey 132 

Views on Delaware and Raritan Canal 231 

Wakelee, Coat of Arms 81 

Wells, Coat of Arms 79 

Wharf at Maysville, New York 140 

Wheeler, Coat of Arms 83 

Wreck of Chautauqua, No. 2 140 





1111 '» p.-.--'- .